IRANIAN REVOLUTION

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IRANIAN REVOLUTION

Some of the Iranian Revolutionaries during the Iran Revolution. Source : wikimedia.org

Iranian Revolution also known as Islamic Revolution was a political uprisings in Iran that brought about change in government from the monarchical Pahlavi dynasty to the Islamic republic. The Revolution was strategized and commanded by the then exiled leader Ayatollah Khomeini against the Iranian monarch Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi.

The Iranian Revolution started in the early 1978 and finally ended in the early 1979.

Background

Before the Iranian Revolution many things happened that necessitated the Revolution which was carried out based on Islamic ideology. However, the most important factor was a religious one.

In 1963, the Iran monarchical government under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi introduced an economic, political, and social reform called the ‘White Revolution’. One aspect of the reform was the introduction of westernization system in which Iran was designed to follow western style for its development. However, most of the Iranians who were conservative opposed the reform especially due to its westernization nature.

Also, towards the outbreak of the Revolution, the Shah regime started to become corrupted and brutal to any opposition. Again, the Iranian economy faced a challenge of economic downgrading such as the growing inflation.

By the mid 1970s, the Iranian clergies, intellectuals and students began organizing strikes and protests against the government which paved the way for the outbreak of the Iranian Revolution.

The outbreak of the Iranian Revolution and the formation of an Islamic Republic

By January 1978, the Iranian Revolution began in which protests against the government intensified and become more political. The protesters began vandalizing government properties especially those that have western icons. While on the other hand Ayatollah Khomeini who was exiled in France continued to support the Revolution and called for the Shah to abdicate.

In December 1978, almost two million demonstrators gathered at Azadi Square where they specifically called for an unconditional abdication of Shah Reza. By January 1979, the Shah was unable to stop the Revolution. Therefore, he and his family fled Iran and went into an exile to Egypt on 16 January 1979. After the Shah was overthrown, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran. On 1 April, 1979, Iran was declared an Islamic Republic and Ayatollah was made a spiritual and supreme leader.

 

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