SHIGOWAR TURAWA NAHIYAR AFRICA

A blank map of Africa. Source : simplemaps.com

Shigowar Turawa Nahiyar Africa wanda a turance muka kira da Europeans in Africa ya kasance wani yanayi wanda Turawa (Europeans) suka samu damar shigowa cikin Nahiyar Africa tare da mamaye nahiyar karkashin ikon su wato a turance colonial domination.

Turawa sun fara shigowa cikin Nahiyar Africa tun a karni na sha hudu wato 14th century. Turawan da suka fara shigowa Africa kuwa sune Turawan kasar Portugal wato Portuguese. Tun daga wannan lokaci ne Turawa suka dinga ziyartar Nahiyar Africa a mabanbantan lokaci da kuma mabanbantan manufofi har zuwa karshen karni na sha tara wato 19th century lokacin da manyan kasashen Turai suka raba tare da mamaye Nahiyar Africa a karkashin ikon su wato colonialism.

Mataki na Farko na Shigowar Turawa Nahiyar Africa

Farkon mataki na Shigowar Turawa Nahiyar Africa ya kasance wani kokari da gwamnatocin kasashen Turawa suka dauka domin shigowa tare da mamayar nahiyar Africa shine ta hanyar kasuwanci a wajejen tsakiyar karni na sha biyar wato 15th century. Farkon turawan da suka shigo Africa sune Turawan kasar Portugal wanda suka kirkiri huldar kasuwanci da garuruwan da ke bakin Tekun Atlantila (Atlantic Ocean). Daga bisani kuma sauran kasashen Turai irin su Ingila, Faransa, Spain, da sauran suma suka fara zuwa domin hada huldar kasuwanci da nahiyar Africa.

Da farko, yan kasuwar Turawan suna kawo kayan da suka aka kera a kasashen irin su bindiga, madubi, da kayan sawa. Su kuma mutanen Africa sukan basu bayi, gwal (gold), hauren giwa (ivory), da kwakwar manja (palm oil). Daga bisani kuma sai Turawa suka fara canza yanayin cinikin zuwa cinikin bayi. Abin da ya janyo canzawar cinikin kuwa shine gano nahiyar Amurka tare da kafa gonakin noman rake da alkama a yankin wanda kasashen Turai suka yi a karshen karni na sha biyar. Saboda haka ne domin samar da wadanda za su dinga noman gonakin sai kasashen Turai suka dukufa wajen sayen yan Africa domin yin aiki a gonakin. Wannan dalilin ne kuma yasa yanayin alakar Turawa da yan Africa ta canza zuwa cinilayyar bayi wadda a tarihance aka fi sani da ‘Cinikayyar Bayi na Tekun Atalantika’. Kasuwancin na bayi ya dore har tsawon karni biyu zuwa uku wato daga 15th century zuwa farkon 19th century. Haka kuma wannan kasuwanci na bayi ya kasance wani matsanancin yanayi wanda aka azabtar miliyoyin bakaken fatar Africa wasu kuma dubbai suka rasu.

Mataki na Biyu

Mataki na biyu na Shigowar Turawa Nahiyar Africa ya kasance ne bayan rushewar Cinikin Bayi na Tekun Atalantika a farkon karni na sha tara wato 19th century. Don haka ne bayan kasashen Turawa sun rusa cinikin bayin sai kuma suka dukufa wajen ganin sun kulla alakar kasuwanci mai kyau wanda a turance suka kira da ‘legitimate trade’.

A sannu a sannu, kasashen Turai irin su Ingila, Faransa, Portugal, Jamus, Spain, Italy, Holland, da sauran su suka dinga tura masana taswira da gano kasashe domin su gano yadda ainihin nahiyar Africa take tare kulla alakar kasuwanci. Wadannan masana taswira da ake kira ‘explorers’ a turance sun shigo cikin manyan daulolin Africa tare da ganin sirrin yadda nahiyar take. A misali, a shekarar 1788 kasar Ingila ta kafa kungiyar masana taswira domin suyi mata aikin gano yadda cikin nahiyar Africa yake.

AFRICA TA YAMMA

A bangaren nahiyar Africa ta Yamma an samu shigowar wadannan turawa masana taswira wanda suka dukufa domin yiwa kasashen su aiki. Daga tsakanin shekarar 1795 zuwa 1805, wani baturen Ingila mai suna Mungo Park ya dukufa wajen gano farkon tare da karshen Kogin Naija (Niger River) sai dai bayan da ya faro aikin sa daga Segou ta kasar Senegal zuwa Bussa da ke kasar Nigeria sai ya hadu da wasu mahara wanda suka kashe shi.

Haka kuma a cikin shekarun 1820 an samu wasu Turawa irin su Hugh Clapperton, Dixon Denham, da sauran su sun samu damar shigowa cikin yankunan Daular Borno (Borno Empire), da kuma Daular Sokoto (Sokoto Caliphate).

A shekarar 1830, wasu yan uwa yan kasar Ingila masu suna Richard Lander da kuma John Lander sun shigo yankin nahiyar Africa domin karasa aikin da Mungo Park ya fara na gano farko da karshen Kogin Naija. Wadannan yan uwa da aka kira a turance da suna ‘Lander Brothers’ sun ci gaba da aikin daga Bussa inda suka nufi kudu zuwa yankunan kurmin Delta har zuwa inda kogin ya kare wato zuwa cikin Tekun Atalantika. Saboda haka wannan nasara ba karamin dadi kasar Ingila ta ji ba saboda muhimmancin Kogin Naija domin yin tafiye-tafiye.

TSAKIYA DA GABASHIN AFRICA

Shigowar Turawa yankin tsakiya da gabashin nahiyar Africa a mataki na biyu ya fara ne a wajejen shekarar 1841 lokacin da wani bature mai yawon yada addinin kiristanci mai suna David Livingston ya fara kokarin gano farko da karshen Kogin Orange (Orange River) dake yankin Congo.

Haka kuma daga shekarar 1874 zuwa 1877 wani bature da ake kira H.M. Stanley ya shigo tare da samun nasarar gano kogunan Victoria da kuma na Tanganyika.

Mataki na Uku

Mataki na Uku na Shigowar Turawa Nahiyar Africa ya kasance wani yunkuri wanda daga shine Turawan suka samu damar mamaya tare da kafa mulkin mallaka a nahiyar Africa. A wannan matakin kasashen Turawa sun dukufa wajen turo malaman addinin kiristanci da kuma sojojin mulki domin kulla alakar kasuwanci da ta mulki.

A shekarar 1795, wata kungiyar malaman addinin kiristanci daga kasar Ingila mai suna Wesleyan Mission Society (W.M.S) ta shigo yankin nahiyar Africa inda tayi aikin ta yankunan Gambia da Sierra Leone. Haka kuma tayi amfani da wannan dama wajen kulla alakar mulki da sarakunan yankin. Haka kuma daga shekarar 1800 zuwa kusan shekarar 1860, wata kungiyar mai suna European Christian Missionary Association (E.C.M.A) tayi aikin ta. Haka kuma a shekarar 1863 kungiyar Christian Missionary Society (C.M.S) tayi samu nasarar kafa kamfanin kasuwanci na West Africa Company a Nigeria.

A tskanin shekarar 1884 zuwa 1885, kasashen Turawa sun hadu a birnin Berlin inda suka tattauna tare da raba nahiyar Africa a tsakanin su. Daga wannan Taron Berlin wanda ake kira a turance da ‘Berlin Conference‘ ne kasashen Turawa suka mayar da hankali wajen mamayar nahiyar Africa ta hanyar masalaha ko kuma da karfin soja.

Kammalawa

Shigowar Turawa Nahiyar Africa ya kasance wani babban al’amari wanda har zuwa yau masana tarihi basu daina tattaunawa akai ba. Domin kuwa kamar yadda muka fada Turawa sun bi muhimman matakai guda uku wanda da ta su ne suka mamaye tare da kafa mulkin mallaka a nahiyar Africa wato ‘colonialism’.

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