SARKIN KANO IBRAHIM DABO

Kofar Shiga Gidan Rumfa, wato Fadar Masarautar Kano. Source : creativecommons.org

Sarkin Kano Ibrahim Dabo wani kasaitaccen sarki ne wanda ya mulki Kasar ko Masarautar Kano daga shekarar 1819 zuwa 1845.

Sarkin Kano Ibrahim Dabo ya kasance daya cikin mafi muhimmanci tare tasiri a jerin sarakunan da suka mulki Masarautar Kano. Yayin da wasu masana tarihin suke ganin cewa a tarihin Kasar Kano ko Masarautar Kano ba’a taba samun Sarki mafi tasiri wanda har yau tsare-tsaren da ya kawo ake amfani da su a wajen gudanar da Mulkin Kasar Kano ba irin sa.

Haka kuma har zuwa yau, zuri’ar Sarkin Kano Dabo ne suke mulkin Kano. Don haka ne ake wa Kano lakabi ko take da ‘Kano Ta Dabo Ci Gari’.

Rayuwar Ibrahim Dabo Kafin Ya Zama Sarkin Kano

Sarkin Kano Ibrahim Dabo ya kasance Bafullatani wanda ya fito daga Kabilar Sullubawa. Sunan mahaifin sa Malam Mahmuda kuma ya kasance malamin addinin Musulunci.

Ibrahim Dabo ya kasance ya taso a gida wanda ake koyar da ilmin addinin Musulunci, don haka shima ya himmatu wajen samun ilmin. Bayan ya samu ilmin addinin Musulunci na farko-farko wato a turance ‘basic education’ sai kuma ya yi shirin tafiya wasu garuruwan domin karin ilmi. Cikin garuruwan da yaje domin neman ilmi sun hada da Zazzau (Zaria) da kuma Bida.

A wajejen shekarar 1804 lokacin da Jihadin Shehu Usman Dan Fodio ya fara, Ibrahim Dabo ya raka dan uwansa wato Malam Jamo tare da sauran kungiyoyin Kabilun Fulani a Kano domin yin caffa. Daga bisani kuma ya zama daya daga cikin wadanda suka fafata a lokacin kaddamar da Jihadi a Kasar Kano.

Bayan da Fulani suka samu nasarar kaddamar da Jihadi a Kasar Kano tare da kafa mulki, Ibrahim Dabo ya zama Na’ibin Limamin Galadanci. Daga bisani ma ya zama cikakken Limamin Galadancin bayan da ya nuna jarumtaka a wani yaki da aka yi a Ifira ta Kasar Zazzau. Bayan wani lokaci, Ibrahim Dabo ya samu karbuwa a wajen Sarkin Kano Sulaimanu har ta kai bayan rasuwar Malam Jamo, Ibrahim Dabo ya maye gurbin sa a matsayin Shugaban Kabilar Fulani Sullubawa a Kano a Fadar Masarautar Kano.

Ibrahim Dabo Ya Zama Sarkin Kano

A cikin shekarar 1819 Sarkin Kano Sulaimanu ya rasu. Don haka ne masu neman hawa gadon Sarautar Kano suka bayyana bukatar su. Cikin manyan masu neman sarautar akwai Malam Inusa Dabon Dambazau na Kabilar Fulani Dambazawa, da kuma Malam Mandikko na Kabilar Fulani Jobawa. Sai dai kuma tarihi yazo cewa kafin Sarkin Kano Sulaimanu ya rasu ya aikawa da Sarkin Musulmi Muhammad Bello wasika inda ya bayyana masa abubuwa guda biyu kamar haka :

  1. Na farko Sarkin Kano Sulaimanu ya bayyanawa Sarkin Musulmi Bello cewa idan ya rasu to yana bukatar Sarkin Musulmin da kar ya bawa Dabon Dambazau ko kuma Mandikko sarautar Kano domin zalunci za suyi
  2. Na biyu kuma ya bayyanawa Sarkin Musulmi cewa yana roko tare da bada shawara cewa idan ya rasu to a nada Ibrahim Dabo a matsayin Sarkin Kano domin kuwa shi masanin addinin Musulunci ne, sannan kuma adali ne.

Saboda haka ne bayan rasuwar Sarkin Kano Sulaimanu sai Sarkin Musulmi Muhammad Bello ya aiko da wasika zuwa ga masu zabar Sarki a Kano yana umartar su da su nada Ibrahim Dabo a matsayin sabon Sarkin Kano. Ance mafi yawancin masu zaben Sarkin wadanda Sarkin Musulmi Muhammad Bello ya aiko wa da wasikar sun yi adawa da hakan. Domin kuwa da yawa daga cikin su sun kasance jagororin kaddamar da Jihadi a Kano. Don haka ne suke ganin cewa su suka fi cancanta da a bawa daya daga cikin su sarautar Kano.

An a bisa dole domin gujewa fushin Sarkin Musulmi, masu nada Sarkin Kano suka zauna tare da nada Ibrahim Dabo a matsayin Sarkin Kano. To amma fa bayan nadin, tsugune bata kare ba domin wasu sun yi shirin yin tawaye. Daga karshe dai an samu yin tawaye a wasu daga cikin bangarorin Kasar Kano. Babban tawaye wanda aka yi wa Sarkin Kano Dabo shine tawayen da Sarkin Fulanin Arewacin Kano Malam Usman Dantunku na Kabilar Fulani Yarimawa yayi.

YAKIN TAWAYEN DANTUNKU

Tarihi ya tabbatar da cewa bayan an nada Ibrahim Dabo a matsayin Sarkin Kano, sai ya rubuta wasika zuwa ga dagatan Kasar Kano da kuma makwabtan Sarakuna cewa yanzu fa shine Sarkin Kano. To amma ance lokacin da wasikar ta isa zuwa Sarkin Fulanin Arewacin Kano Malam Usman Dantunku sai ya yaga wasikar tare da cewa shi fa ba zai bi Ibrahim Dabo a matsayin Sarkin Kano ba. Sannan ya kara da cewa daga yanzu Arewacin Kano ya balle (secession) daga ikon Masarautar Kano kuma ya ayyana kan sa a matsayin Sarki me cin gashin kan sa. Wannan dalili ne yasa Sarkin Kano Dabo ya ayyana yaki akan Dantunku.

Rigimar tawaye tsakanin Sarkin Kano Ibrahim Dabo da kuma Sarkin Fulanin Arewacin Kano Malam Usman Dantunku ta kasance rigima mai girma wadda ta dauki kimanin shekara bakwai ana fafatawa. A lokacin da ana yake-yaken tawayen ne ma wani baturen Ingila me yawon sanin kasashe (explorer) wanda ake kira da Hugh Clapperton ya ziyara ci birnin Kano a wajejen shekarar 1824. A hanyar sa ne ma na fita daga Kano zuwa Sokoto yaga yadda mayakan Sarkin Kano Dabo da na Dantunku suka gwabza wani kazamin yaki a wani gari dake arewa maso yamma daga birnin Kano me suna Tattarawa. Baturen ya rubuta wannan yaki da ya gani kuma har wannan rubutu nasa yana nan a Ma’ajiyar Kayan Tarihi Ta Kasar Ingila dake birnin London.

Daga karshe Sarkin Kano Ibrahim Dabo Ya samu nasarar murkushe tawayen Dantunku tare da fatattakar sa har ya gudu zuwa arewa. An ce bayan da Dantunku ya gudu bai tsaya ba sai a wani guri me duwatsu wanda yake tsakanin iyakar Kasashen Kano, Katsina, da Daura wato garin Kazaure a yanzu. Anan ne ma bisa umarnin Sarkin Musulmi Muhammad Bello Sarkin Kano Dabo ya hakura ya barshi. Daga baya kuma Sarkin Musulmi ya amince da Dantunku ya kafa Masarautar Kazaure mai cin gashin kan ta. Haka kuma ya umarci Sarakunan Kano, Katsina, da Daura da su gutsurawa Dantunku wani bangare daga cikin kasashen su domin shima ya mallaki Masarautar sa ta kan sa.

Tabbatuwar Mulki Da Tsarin Sarauta

Sarkin Kano Ibrahim Dabo Ya kasance malami kuma kasaitaccen basarake wanda ya bawa Sarautar Kasar Kano tsari da kima wanda har yake a idon duniya. Wannan dalili ne ma yasa wasu masana tarihin Kasar Kano suke ganin cewa shine sarki wanda yafi kowane sarki kawo tsari da daukaka ga Masarautar Kano.

Bayan da Sarkin Kano Dabo ya samu nasarar murkushe duk wani tawaye a Kasar Kano, sai kuma ya dukufa wajen sake fasalin sarautar Kano.

A bangaren tsarin izzar sarauta da kuma nadin hakimci, Sarki Dabo ya bada gudunmawa. Bayan ya kama sarauta, sai ya bukaci Sarkin Musulmi Muhammadu Bello da ya sahale masa yin amfani da wasu al’adu da kuma sarautun hakimai da na bayi wadanda sarakunan Kano na zamanin Habe suka yi amfani da su. Don haka bayan Sarkin Musulmi ya sahale masa, sai Sarki Dabo ya fara da zaman karaga yayin da hakimai su kuma sukan zauna a kasa, sannan ya daina yin hannu da hakimai sai dai su rusuna su gaida shi, haka kuma ya dawo da al’adar saka takalmi mai gashin jimina, rike Tagwayen Masu, yin kunne biyu da yin amawali, a sauran su. Sannan kuma a bangaren zaman gidan sarauta, domin ya banbanta yayan sarauta da na bayi, sai ya saka aka fara yi wa yayan bayi tsage uku-uku a gefen bakin su. Haka kuma a bangaren hakimci, Sarkin Kano Dabo ya karfafa zaman fada tare da nada hakimai daga cikin rukunin manyan kabilun Fulanin Kano wadanda suka hadu suka kaddamar da Jihadi a Kano kamar haka :

  1. Madakin aka bawa Fulani Yolawa, kuma har yau zuri’ar sune suke rike da sarautar
  2. Makaman Kano aka bawa Fulani Jobawa, kuma har yanzu sune suke rike da sarautar.
  3. Sarkin Dawaki Mai Tuta aka bawa Fulani Sullubawa tsagin gidan Malam Jamo. Amma daga baya sarautar ta bar ahalin gidan
  4. Sarkin Bai aka bawa Fulani Dambazawa, kuma bar yau sune suke rike da sarautar
  1. Galadiman Kano
  2. Wamban Kano
  3. Madakin Kano
  4. Makaman Kano
  5. Sarkin Dawaki Mai Tuta
  6. Sarkin Bai
  7. Dan Iyan Kano
  8. Ciroman Kano
  9. Alkalin Kano

Haka kuma daga cikin rukunin Hakiman Tara ta Kano, Sarki Dabo ya zabo hakimai guda hudu domin su zama yan Majalisar Zabar Sarkin Kano. Wadannan hakimai sune kamar haka :

  1. Madakin Kano
  2. Makaman Kano
  3. Sarkin Dawaki Mai Tuta
  4. Sarkin Ban Kano

A bangaren sarautun bayi kuwa, Sarkin Kano Ibrahim Dabo ya farfado tare da inganta sarautun bayi wanda ake da su tun zamanin sarakunan Habe. Wadannan sarautun bayi sune kamar haka :

  1. Shamaki a matsayin shugaban bayin Sarkin Kano gaba ki daya
  2. Danrimi a matsayin mai kula da hakimai da sauran hidimomin Sarki
  3. Sallama a matsayin wanda zai yi iso ga duk mai son ganin Sarki
  4. Sarkin Dogarai a matsayin mai kula da tsaron Sarki da iyalan sa
  5. Kilishi a matsayin mai kula da shimfidar Sarki

Rasuwar Sarkin Kano Ibrahim Dabo

Sarkin Kano Dabo ya rasu a ranar Juma’a 9 ga watan Fabrairu na shekarar 1845, bayan ya kwashe shekaru ashirin da shida yana kan karagar Sarautar Kano.

Wani abin alfahari shine cewa bayan rasuwar sa ba’a samu wani wanda ya sarauci Kano ba wanda ba daga cikin ahlin sa ya fito ba. Domin kuwa yaya da jikokin sa sune suka sarauci Kasar Kano ko Masarautar Kano har ya zuwa yau.

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