TARIHIN WINSTON CHURCHILL

A picture of Winston Churchill. Source : A Public Domain kids.kiddle.co

A tarihin Winston Churchill ya kasance wani babban dan siyasa ne, kuma jagora wanda ya zama Firaministan Ingila shekarar 1940 zuwa 1945, da kuma 1951 zuwa 1955.

A tarihin Winston Churchill ya kasance dan Jam’iyyar siyasa ta Liberal daga bisani kuma Conservative wanda a karkashin su ne yaci zabe a matsayin dan Majalisar Dokokin Ingila inda ya wakilci gundumomi daban-daban wanda suka hada da Oldham, Manchester North West, Dundee, Epping, da kuma Woodford, duk a tsakanin shekarun1900 to 1964.

A harkar siyasar duniya kuma, a tarihin Winston Churchill yayi suna a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan shugabannin duniya a zamanin sa. Mafi shaharar abin da yayi a duniya shine na kasancewa daya daga cikin jagororin yaki wanda suka yaki Hitler a lokacin Yakin Duniya na biyu.

Farkon Rayuwa Tarihin Winston Churchill

An haifi Winston Churchill a ranar 30 ga watan Nuwamba, 1874, a Blenheim dake yankin Oxfordshire, a kasar Ingila. Mahaifin sa sunan sa Lord Randolph Churchill wanda ya kasance basarake. Yayin da mahaifiyar sa kuma sunan ta Jennie Churchill wadda asalin iyayen ta suke yan asalin Amurka.

A tarihin Winston Churchill yayi karatu a Makarantun St. Georges, Brunswick, da kuma Harrow. Daga bisani kuma ya shiga Makarantar Sojoji ta yayan Sarauta wadda a turance ake kira da Royal Military Academy, dake Sandhurst daga shekarar 1893 zuwa 1894.

Aikin Soja a Tarihin Winston Churchill

Winston Churchill ya fara aikin soja a matsayin second lieutenant a Gungun Sojojin Ingila dake Aldershot a shekarar 1895. Haka kuma a shekarar ya fara fita filin yaki lokacin da aka tura shi domin taya sojojin Spain rigima a yayin Yakin neman Yancin kasar Cuba.

A shekarar 1896, an tura Churchill zuwa kasar India domin yin wasu ayyukan soja. Sannan kuma daga baya yayi aiki a matsayin dan jaridar soja mai kawo labari a yakin da sojojin Ingila suka yi daban-daban a kasashen India, Sudan, da kuma Afirka ta Kudu.

Harkar Siyasa da Mulki

A tarihin Winston Churchill tun yana aikin soja, ya kasance mutum mai sha’awar harkokin siyasa da mulki. Don haka ne a shekarar 1900 ya bar aikin soja tare da tsunduma cikin harkokin siyasa inda ya shiga cikin Jam’iyyar Siyasa ta Conservative. Haka kuma dai a shekarar ta 1900 ya tsaya tare da lashe zabe a matsayin Dan Majalisar Dokokin Ingila mai wakiltar Mazabar Oldham. A wannan matsayi, Churchill ya kasance mutum mai yawan magana tare da kalubalantar wasu manufofin gwamnatin duk da cewa gwamnatin Conservative ce. Wannan dalili ne ya janyo rigima tsakanin sa da jagororin Jam’iyyar.

A shekarar 1904, Winston Churchill ya bar Jam’iyyar Conservative tare da shiga Jam’iyyar Liberal. A cikin shekarar 1906, Churchill ya tsaya takara tare da lashe zabe a matsayin Dan Majalisar Dokokin Ingila amma a wannan karon mai wakiltar Mazabar Manchester North West.

Wani karin tagomashi, a shekarar ta 1906 Jam’iyyar Liberal ta samu rinjaye a Majalisa tare da Henry Campbell-Bannermann a matsayin Firaminista. A sabuwar gwamnatin, Firaminista Bannerman ya nada Churchill a matsayin Mataimakin Sakatare Mai Kula da Yankunan Mulkin Mallaka na Ingila wanda a turance ake kira da Under Secretary of State for the Colonies har zuwa shekarar 1908.

A shekarar 1908, Winston Churchill ya rasa kujerar sa ta Dan Majalisa Mai Wakiltar Manchester North West a zabe. To amma, sai al’ummar Mazabar Dundee suka nemi da yazo ya tsaya musu dan majalisa. Churchill ya tsaya zaben tare da lashe kujerar.

A shekarar 1910, Jam’iyyar Conservative ta sake kafa gwamnati. A sabuwar Gwamnatin an nada Winston Churchill a matsayin Sakataren Harkokin Cikin Gida wato a turance Home Secretary har zuwa shekarar 1911.

Bayan kamar shekara daya a matsayin Sakataren Harkokin Cikin Gida, an canza Winston Churchill zuwa mukamin Shugaban Ma’aikatar Harkokin Sojojin Ruwa wato a turance Lord of the Admiralty amma daga bisani bayan an fara Yakin Duniya na biyu sai aka cire a shekarar 1915. Don haka ne a watan October na shekarar ya koma aikin soja da mukamin Lt. Colonel, sannan kuma ya shiga cikin gungun sojojin Ingila masu yin yaki a Faransa a Yakin Duniya na daya.

A shekarar 1916, Jam’iyyar Liberal ta sake kafa gwamnati tare da David Lloyd George a matsayin Firaminista. Haka ma dai a wannan sabuwar Gwamnatin, an gayyaci Winston Churchill tare da nada shi matsayin Ministan Makamai wato a turance Minister of Munitions A wannan mukamin, Churchill ya himmatu wajen kula da bawa sojojin Ingila kayan yaki a fadan dake suke yi a Yakin Duniya na Daya har zuwa shekarar 1918 inda aka sake masa mukami zuwa Sakataren Harkokin Yaki, mukamin da ya rike har zuwa shekarar 1921.

A shekarar 1921 Winston Churchill ya samu babban mukami na Sakatare Mai Kula da Yankunan Mulkin Mallakar Ingila wato a turance Secretary of State for the Colonies. A karkashin wannan mukami, Winston Churchill yayi ayyuka masu tasiri musamman yadda ya bawa Yahudawa taimako da goyon bayawajen samun mazaunai a yankin Palestine.

A shekarar 1922, an sake zabe a Ingila, amma kash !, Winston Churchill ya fadi zabe wanda yasa ya zauna a matsayin wanda ba dan majalisa ba har zuwa shekarar 1924.

A yayin da ake tunkarar wani zaben a watan October na shekarar 1924, Winston Churchill ya bar Jam’iyyar Siyasa ta Liberal tare da komawa Jam’iyyar Conservative. Bayan ya shigo Jam’iyyar Conservative, ya tsaya tare da lashe zabe a Matsayin Dan Majalisa Mai Wakiltar Mazabar Epping. Haka kuma, Jam’iyyar Conservative ta samu rinjaye inda ta kafa gwamnati tare da Stanley Baldwin a matsayin Firaminista. A sabuwar Gwamnatin, an nada Churchill a matsayin Shugaba Mai Kula da Harkokin Kudi da Haraji wato a turance Chancellor of the Exchequer har zuwa 1929.

A shekarar 1929, Jam’iyyar Conservative ta rasa rinjaye a Majalisar Dokoki bayan an gudanar da zabe a shekarar inda Jam’iyyar Labour ta kafa gwamnati. Wannan dalili ne yasa Winston Churchill ya kasance a bangaren marasa rinjaye har zuwa shekarar 1939.

Koda yake ya ci gaba da zama a matsayin dan majalisar dokoki, Winston Churchill yayi amfani da wannan lokacin wajen mayar da hankali wajen aikin Majalisa da kuma rubuce-rubuce. A haka ne ma ya rubuta tarihin rayuwar sa wanda a turance ya kira da ‘My Early Life‘.

Yakin Duniya na Biyu da Zama Firaminista

Saura yan watanni kadan ne kafin barkewar Yakin Duniya na Biyu, Jam’iyyar Conservative ta samu rinjaye wanda ya bata damar kafa gwamnati tare da Neville Chamberlain a matsayin Firaminista. Haka kuma Winston Churchill ya samu mukami inda aka bashi mukamin da ya taba rikewa wato Shugaban Ma’aikatar Harkokin Sojojin Ruwa.

Sai dai kuma bayan Yakin Duniya na Biyu ya Kankama, a shekarar 1940 Firaminista Neville Chamberlain yayi murabus sakamakon matsaloli da Ingila take fuskanta a Yakin, saboda haka aka maye gurbin sa da Winston Churchill a ranar 10 ga watan Mayu, 1940.

Zama Firaministan Ingila a yayin da ake tsaka da gudanr da Yakin Duniya na Biyu ya nuna cewa Winston Churchill yana da gagarumin kalubale a gaban sa na ganin cewa Ingila tayi nasara a Yakin. Don haka a kokarin yin hakan ne, ya zama daya daga cikin Jagororin Yaki wanda a turance aka kira su da ‘Wartime Leaders’. Sauran Jagororin sun hada da Shugaban Amurka Franklin Roosevelt, da kuma Shugaban Rasha Joseph Stalin. Tare da wadannan Jagororin ne Winston Churchill ya dukufa tare da halartar tarurruka da karfafar sojoji wajen ganin an kawo karshen kasar Jamus da kawayenta a Yakin Duniya na Biyu.

Daidai lokacin da Yakin Duniya na Biyu ya taho karshe, an kafa sabuwar gwamnati wadda ta janyo Winston Churchill ya rasa kujerar sa, kuma Clement Atlee na Jam’iyyar Labour ya maye gurbin sa a ranar 26 ga watan July, 1945. Wannan kuma yasa Winston Churchill ya zama Shugaban marasa rinjaye wato a turance ‘Opposition Leader‘.

Shugaban Marasa Rinjaye da zama Firaminista a Karo na Biyu

Bayan yabar mukamin Firaminista, tare da zama Shugaban Marasa Rinjaye, a tarihin Winston Churchill ya dukufa wajen yin adawa mai ma’ana. Sannan kuma, saboda kokarin da yayi a Yakin Duniya na, an ci gaba da girmama shi tare da neman shawarwarin sa ba a Ingila kadai ba har a sauran kasashen duniya.

FIRAMINISTA A KARO NA BIYU 1951-1955

A shekarar 1951, an gudanar da zabe wanda ya bawa Jam’iyyar Conservative rinjaye. Don haka Jam’iyyar ta kafa gwamnati, kuma Winston Churchill ya zama sabon Firaminista.

To amma saboda yanayin tsufa, Winston Churchill ya kasance maras karsashi idan an kwatanta da lokacin baya. Don haka ne a watan Afrilu 1955, yayi murabus a matsayin Firaminista, amma kuma yaci gaba da zama dan Majalisar sa har zuwa shekarar 1964 lokacin da yabar harkokin siyasa gaba daya domin ya huta.

Mutuwa

Winston Churchill ya rasu a ranar 24 ga Janairu, 1965, yana dan shekaru 90 a gidan sa dake London. An kuma binne shi a St. Martins Church, Bladon, a kasar Ingila.

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