TARIHIN FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT

Hoton Franklin Roosevelt by Leon A. Perskie, Hyde Park, New York, August 21, 1944. Source : creativecommons.org

A Tarihin Franklin Roosevelt ya kasance wani dan siyasa ne kuma jagora na kasar Amurka wanda ya shugabanci Amurka a matsayin Shugaba na 32 daga shekarar 1933 zuwa 1945.

Haka kuma a Tarihin Franklin Roosevelt ya kasance dan Jam’iyyar siyasa ta Democrat wanda a karkashin ta ne yaci zabe da ya bashi damar shugabantar Amurka na tsawon shekaru goma sha biyu, kuma ya kasance shugaba mafi dadewa.

A tsarin siyasar duniya, Franklin Roosevelt ya kasance daya daga cikin shugabanni masu tasiri da aka yi a karni na ashirin, wato 20th Century. Mafi muhimmancin rawar da ya taka a duniya ita ce a Yakin Duniya na biyu inda ya zama daya daga cikin jagorori duniya da suka kawo karshen kasar Jamus a Yakin.

Farkon Rayuwa a Tarihin Franklin Roosevelt

A bisa Tarihin Franklin Roosevelt an haife shi a ranar 30 ga January, 1882, a Hyde Park, New York. Mahaifin sa sunan sa James Roosevelt, yayin da mahaifiyar sa sunan ta Sarah Delano.

KARATU

Franklin Roosevelt ya fara makaranta ne a Makarantar Groton inda ya samu ilmin firamare. Daga nan ya shiga Makarantar Sakadare a Havard daga 1900 zuwa 1903. Daga 1904 zuwa 1907 ya halarci Makarantar Sharia ta Columbia.

Bayan ya gama Makarantar Columbia, Roosevelt ya fara aiki da sashen shari’a na Wall Street Firm dake birnin New York a shekarar 1908.

Rayuwar Siyasa da Mulki a Tarihin Franklin Roosevelt

Tun yana karami, a Tarihin Franklin Roosevelt ya kasance mai sha’awar yin siyasa saboda yadda yaga kawun sa Shugaban Kasar Amurka na wancan lokaci wato Theodore Roosevelt yake mulki. Don haka ne ma, Franklin ya bayyana kawun nasa a matsayin abin kwaikwayon sa.

Franklin Roosevelt ya shiga harkokin siyasa gadan-gadan a shekarar 1910, lokacin da ya tsaya takara a matsayin sanatan Jiha a Majalisar Dokokin Jihar New York wato a turance New York State Assembly, kuma ya samu nasara. A yayin zaman sa na Majalisar, Roosevelt yayi kokari sosai wadda ta sa aka sake zaben a shekarar 1912.

A shekarar 1913, anyi zabe inda aka kafa sabuwar gwamnati a Amurka wadda Woodrow Wilson na Jam’iyyar Democrat ya zama Shugaban Kasa. Don haka ne Shugaba Wilson ya gayyaci Franklin Roosevelt zuwa cikin gwamnatin sa, inda ya nada shi Mataimakin Sakatare Mai Kula da Sojojin Ruwa, wato a turance Assistant Secretary of the Navy. To bayan shekara daya sai Yakin Duniya na biyu ya barke a shekarar 1914. Saboda haka ne Roosevelt a matsayin Mataimaki mai kula da Sojojin Ruwan Amurka ya zama cikin hada-hadar karfafar Sojojin Ruwa a Yakin.

Bayan Yakin Duniya na biyu kuma a shekarar 1919, sai Franklin Roosevelt ya bar matsayin sa domin neman damar zama mataimakin dan takarar shugaban kasa na Jam’iyyar Democrat. Burin Roosevelt ya cika inda dan takarar shugaban kasa na Jam’iyyar Democrat James Cox ya dauke shi a matsayin mataimakin sa. To amma kash !, bayan an fafata a Zaben Shugaban Kasa a shekarar 1920, dan takarar Jam’iyyar Republican Warren G. Harding ya kayar da su.

A shekarar 1921, Franklin Roosevelt ya kamu da rashin lafiya wadda ta janyo shanyewar jikin sa daga kugu zuwa kafafun sa. Saboda haka ne yaja baya daga harkokin siyasa domin kula da lafiyar sa har zuwa shekarar 1928, lokacin da ya fara samun lafiya.

GWANAN JIHAR NEW YORK

Bayan Franklin Roosevelt ya fara samun lafiya a wajejen shekarar 1928, sai jagororin Jam’iyyar Democrat na Jihar New York suka bukaci da ya tsaya musu a matsayin dan takarar gwamna a Jihar New York. Bayan nazari, Roosevelt ya amince, inda ya tsaya takarar kuma ya samu nasara.

Franklin Roosevelt ya zama Gwamnan Jihar New York lokacin da kasar Amurka gaba daya ta fara fuskantar matsin tattalin wanda a turance suka kira da ‘Great Depression’. Don haka ne, ya himmatu wajen magance matsalar a Jihar sa ta New York. A cikin tsare-tsaren da ya fito da su sun hada da bawa mutane jari da kuma samar da ayyukan yi.

A shekarar 1930, an sake buga zaben gwamna, kuma jama’ar Jihar New York sun sake zaben Franklin Roosevelt a matsayin gwamnan su a karo na biyu.

Shugabancin Kasa da Yakin Duniya na Biyu

SHUGABANCIN KASA

A yayin da Zaben Shugaban Kasa na shekarar 1932 ya matso, Franklin Roosevelt ya nemi zama dan takarar Jam’iyyar Democrat a zaben. Burin sa ya cika bayan an da wakilan Jam’iyyar Democrat suka zabe shi a matsayin dan takarar shugabancin kasa a Babban Taron Jam’iyyar da aka gudanar a watan July na shekarar 1932 a birnin Chicago.

An buga Zaben Shugaban Kasa a ranar 8 ga watan November, 1932, tsakanin Franklin Roosevelt na Jam’iyyar Democrat da kuma Shugaban Kasar Amurka mai ci wato Habert Hoover na Jam’iyyar Republican. Bayan an gama kada kuri’a, sakamakon Zaben ya nuna Franklin Roosevelt a matsayin wanda ya lashe Zaben da kuri’a 22,821,277.

An rantsar da Franklin Roosevelt tare da kama aiki a matsayin sabon Shugaban Kasar Amurka a ranar 4 March, 1933, a United States Capitol dake babban birnin kasa Washington D.C.

Bayan ya kama aiki, Franklin Roosevelt ya himmatu wajen daidaitawa tare da kawo karshen matsin tattalin arziki da ake fama da shi a Amurka. Don haka ne ya samar da wani sabon tsari wanda a turance ya kira da ‘New Deal’ domin tunkarar matsalar. A karkashin Sabon Shiri, Roosevelt ya samar da shirye-shirye domin farfado da samar da amfanin gona, da kuma samarwa da mutane miliyan biyar sauki ta hanyar bada jari a duk a shekarar. Sannan kuma, an samar da doka wadda ta tilasta kamfanoni bayar da bayanai akan hannun jari ga masu saya, domin gujewa matsalolin da aka fuskanta a baya.

Wadannan tsare-tsare da sauran su sun taimaka kwarai da gaske. Domin kuwa daga shekarar 1933 zuwa 1936, an samu sauki wanda ya nunawa cewa tattalin arzikin Amurka ya fara farfadowa.

A shekarar 1936 Franklin Roosevelt ya sake lashe zabe a karo na biyu. Wanda tun daga nan ya ci gaba da zama Shugaban Kasar Amurka ta hanyar lashe wasu zabubbukan har sau biyu daga shekarar 1936 din har zuwa 1945.

YAKIN DUNIYA NA BIYU

Yakin Duniya na biyu ya barke a shekarar 1939, amma Amurka taki shiga cikin Yakin har sai bayan da jiragen saman yakin Japan suka kaiwa Mazaunin Sojojin Ruwan Amurka dake Tsibirin Pearl dake Tekun Pacific wanda a turance ake kira da Pearl Harbor a ranar 8 ga December, 1941. Wannan dalili ne yasa Franklin Roosevelt a matsayin sa na Shugaban Amurka ya bukaci Majalisar Dokokin Kasar da ta bashi damar ayyana yaki akan Japan da Jamus. Bayan Majalisar tayi nazari, sai ta amince da Amurka ta shiga cikin Yakin Duniya na biyu.

Bayan amincewar Majalisar ne, sai Franklin Roosevelt ya shiga sahun jagororin yaki wanda suke yakar Jamus a Yakin Duniya na biyun. Sauran jagororin sun hada da Firaministan Ingila Winston Churchill da kuma Shugaban Rasha Joseph Stalin. Tare da wadannan Shugabanni, Franklin Roosevelt ya himmatu wajen zuwa tattaunawa iri-iri domin ganin an kawo karshen kasar Jamus da kawayenta.

Mutuwa

Saura yan watanni kadan a gama Yakin Duniya na biyu ne rashin lafiya ta kama Franklin Roosevelt, wadda ta tilasta masa barin Washington zuwa gidan hutun sa dake Warm Springs a Jihar Georgia a ranar 29 ga March, 1945.

Bayan ya kwashe kamar sati biyu a Warm Springs, Franklin Roosevelt ya rasu a ranar 13 ga Afrilu 1945. An kuma binne shi a Springwood Estate dake Jihar New York.

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