HausaTarihin Amurka

YAKIN YANCIN AMURKA

John Trumbull’s painting, Declaration of Independence, depicting the five-man drafting committee of the Declaration of Independence presenting their work to the Congress. The painting can be found on the back of the U.S. $2 bill. The original hangs in the US Capitol rotunda. Source : A Public Domain kids.kiddle.co

Yakin Yancin Amurka wanda a turance ake kira da American War of Independence ko American Revolution wani yaki ne da aka gwabza tsakanin kasar Ingila da kuma Yankunan ta na Mulkin Mallaka guda 13 dake yankin Arewacin Amurka wanda a turance ake kiran su da 13 American Colonies.

An gudanar da Yakin na Neman Yancin Amurka a tsawon shekaru 8 tun daga lokacin da Yankuna 13 na Amurka suka bijirewa mulkin Ingila a shekarar 1775 har zuwa lokacin Ingilar ta amince da yancin su a shekarar 1783.

Don haka ne Yakin Yancin Amurka ya kasance yaki da ya samarwa da Yankunan Mulkin Mallakar Ingila yanci a matsayin sabuwar kasa wadda ake kira da Hadaddiyar Jihohin Amurka wadda a turance ake kira da United States of America.

Asalin Yakin Yancin Amurka

Kafin barkewar Yakin Yancin Amurka a shekarar 1775, kasar da ake kira da United States of America a turance ta kasance wani Yankin Mulkin Mallakar Ingila mai yankuna 13 wanda suka hada da New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia.

Tarihin mulkin mallakar Ingila a yankin Arewacin Amurka ya samo asali ne a wajejen shekarar 1606 lokacin da Sarkin Ingila James I ya bawa wani kamfani mai suna London Company damar kafa mulki a yankin. Don haka ne Kamfanin London ya kafa yankin mulkin mallaka na farko mai suna a turance Virginia Colony da garin Jamestown a matsayin hedikwatar mulki. Saboda haka, tun shekarar 1606 zuwa 1775, kasar Ingila ta kafa tare da mulkar Yankuna 13 a gabashin gabar tekun Arewacin Amurka a matsayin mallakin ta.

Sai dai a wajejen shekarar 1660, alaka tsakanin kasar Ingila da Yankunan Mulkin Mallakar ta 13 ta fara yin tsami. Da farko dai Yankunan 13 tsawon wasu shekaru sun samar da al’adu da tsarin gudanarwa a tsakanin su, wanda ya saka suka fara ji a jikin su cewar ya kamata su sami wani iko nasu na kansu. Na biyu kuma, kasar Ingila ta fada cikin yanayin bashi sakamakon yaki da ta gwabza da kasar Faransa wanda a turance ake kira da French and Indian War. Don haka ne gwamnatin Ingila karkashin jagorancin Sarki George III ta fara sakawa Yankuna nan 13 na Amurka haraji domin ta cike gibin bashin dake kanta.

Haraji na farko shine dokar da Majalisar Dokokin Ingila ta yi wadda turance ake kira da Navigation Acts. Ita wannan doka ta bukaci Yankuna 13 nan da su takaita mu’amular kasuwancin su da sauran kasashe da kuma yawaita kasuwanci da ita Ingilar. To amma Yankunan 13 sun hade kansu tare da nuna kin amincewar su da wannan dokar. To amma, maimakon gyara dokar, sai Majalisar Dokokin Ingilar ta kara samar da wata doka wadda a turance ake kira da Stamp Acts wadda a karkashin ta aka bukaci Yankuna 13 da su biya kudin bugun hatimi akan ko wacce takadda ta gwamnati.

To amma a wannan karon, sai al’ummar Yankunan suka fito suka yi zanga-zanga suna fada a turance ‘no taxation without representation’ wato baza su kara biyan haraji ba har sai sun sami wakilci a Majalisar Dokokin Ingila. Don haka ne a watan October 1775, wakilai daga Yankuna 9 daga cikin 13 suka hadu a birnin New York tare da ayyana yanke huldar kasuwanci da kasar Ingila har sai an soke dokokin da suka kakaba musu haraji.

Ana ta bangaren, Majalisar Dokokin Ingila ta soke dokar Stamp Acts, amma kuma ta dukufa wajen samo wata sabuwar hanyar samun kudi daga Yankunan. Saboda haka, Majalisar Ingila a bisa shawarar Ministan Kudi Charles Townshend ta samar da wata doka wadda a turance ake kira da Townshend Acts. Ita kuma wannan doka ta Townshend, ta bukaci Yankunan 13 da su biya haraji mai yawa akan kaya da suka siyo kamar su gilas, karafuna, kayan yaji, da kuma ganyen shayi.

To amma a karo na biyu, al’ummar Yankuna 13 sun nuna fushin su akan dokar Townshend. Saboda haka, a birnin Boston dake Yankin Massachusetts mutanen birnin sun yi taro tare da ayyana cewa baza su kara siyan wani kaya daga Ingila ba, sannan suka bukaci sauran yankunan dasu yi irin haka.

To amma wannan taro na mutanen birnin Boston ya bawa gwamnatin Ingila haushi, don haka ta tura wata rundunar soja karkashin jagorancin General Thomas Gage domin samar da doka da oda. Sai dai kash !, a yayin samar da oda a birnin na Boston, an sami matsala wadda ta janyo rigima tsakanin sojojin da kuma mutanen birnin har ta kai an kashe mutane biyar wanda a turance ake kira da ‘Boston Massacre’. Wannan rigima ta birnin Boston, ta yadu tare da janyo fushi daga sauran Amurkawa a daukacin Yankuna 13 nan har ta kai Amurkawa sun hana jiragen yan kasuwar Ingila sauke kaya a gabar Tekun Atalantika.

TARON MAJALISAR YANKUNA 13 NA FARKO

Yayin da alaka tayi tsami tsakanin Ingila da Yankunan ta 13, sai Yankunan suka shirya domin haduwa su tattauna akan mafita. Don haka ne a watan September 1774 wakilai daga Yankuna 13 suka hadu a birnin Philadelphia domin gabatar da taron Majalisar su ta tattaunawa wanda a turance suka kira da Continental Congress.

A yayin taron Majalisar Kolin, wakilan sun kara tabbatar da matsayar su ta cewa dole ne su sami wakilci a Majalisar Dokokin Ingila. Haka kuma, sun yi kira ga Sarkin Ingila George III domin ya duba matsalolin su domin kawo gyra.

To amma abin takaici, maimakon Sarki George III ya duba koken da aka turo masa, sai yayi watsi da koken. Sannan kuma Majalisar Dokokin Ingila ta kara tabbatar da ikon ta nayi wa Yankunan dokoki tare da dora musu haraji. Suma kuma ana su bangaren, al’ummar yankuna 13 sun tsaya akan matsayar su na cewa baza su kara biyan haraji ba har sai sun sami wakilci a Majalisar Dokoki.

Barkewar Yakin Yancin Amurka

1775-1776

Yakin Yancin Amurka ya fara ne a ranar 19 ga Afrilu, 1775, lokacin da Kwamandan sojin Ingila a Amurka General Thomas Gage ya tura sojoji 800 zuwa garin Concord domin su kwato wasu makamai bayan da ya samu labari ana tara su domin fito na fito da sojojin sa. A hanyar su na zuwa Concord ne sojojin sa kai na Amurkawa suka tare su a garin Lexington inda suka kaure da fada, kuma fadan ya janyo raunata sojoji daga kowane bangare.

TARON MAJALISAR YANKUNA 13 NA BIYU

A ranar 10 ga Mayu, 1775, wakilai daga Yankunan Mulkin Mallaka 13 sun sake taron su na Majalisar Yankuna karo na biyu a birni Philadelphia. A yayin taron, wakilan sun bayyan cewa basu da niyyar yin yaki da Ingila. Sannan sun tabbatar da niyyar su na ci gaba da yi wa gwamnatin Ingila biyayya matukar Sarki George III tare da Majalisar Ingila sun duba koken su.

Sai dai kafin tashi daga taron, wakilan su kafa hukumomi guda biyu koda babban yaki zai iya barkewa. Hukuma ta farko ita ce Majalisar Yankuna mai ikon gudanarwa karkashin jagorancin John Hancock daga Yankin Massachusetts. Sai kuma Rundunar Sojin Yankunan wadda a turance ake kira da ‘Continental Army’ karkashin jagorancin General George Washington daga Yankin Virginia.

A watan July 1775, Majalisar Yankuna 13 ta sake zama inda ta duba yiwuwar yin babban yaki da Ingila. A yayin taron, ra’ayin wakilan Majalisar ya rabu gida biyu. Kashi na farko da a turance suka kira da ‘patriots’ sun nuna amincewar su da a buga yaki da Ingila. Yayin da kashi na biyu da ake kira da ‘loyalists’ suka nuna kin amincewar su akan yin yaki da Ingila. Don haka ne daga karshe, Majalisar ta aika wasika inda ta kira Sarki George III akan ya dau mataki na gaggawa akan yadda rigingimu suke faruwa.

Abin takaici, maimakon Sarki George III yayi aiki da wasikar, sai yai jifa da ita. Sannan kuma ya ayyana Yankuna 13 matsayin yan tawaye, don haka ya kara turo karin sojoji wanda mayar da su adadin 30000 karkashin sabon Kwamanda mai suna William Howe wanda ya canji General Gage.

AYYANA YANCIN KAI

A kokarin mayar da martani akan umarnin Sarki, wakilan Majalisar Yankuna sun hadu a ranar 4 ga July, 1776, inda suka ayyana yancin kan su wanda a turance ake kira da ‘Declaration of Independence’ daga mulkin Ingila. A cikin bayanin Yancin Kan, marubucin mai suna Thomas Jefferson ya yi amfani da koyarwar manyan masana falsafa (philosophy) akan yancin yan adam wajen ayyana dalilin su na ballewa daga mulkin Ingila. Saboda haka, bayanin ya tabbatar da Yankuna 13 a matsayin Yantacciyar kasa mai suna a turance United States of America. Sannan ya tabbatar da cewa su yanzu ba suna yin yaki da Ingila bane a matsayin bijirarru, a’a suna yin Yaki ne a matsayin Amurkwa wanda suke kare kasar su daga harin wata kasa.

A watan August 1776, sojojin Ingila karkashin jagorancin Kwamandoji uku General William Howe, General Henry Clinton, da kuma General John Burgoyne sun nufi yankin New York inda sojojin Amurka tuni suka yi sansani. Sojojin bangare biyun sun hadu a wani guri da ake kira da Long Island inda suka buga gagarumin yaki. A yakin, sojojin Ingila sun kori na Amurka har suka rarake su daga yankin New York zuwa yankin Pennsylvania. Saboda haka sojojin Ingila suka dawo baya domin sake shiri.

A nasu bangaren, sojojin Amurka bayan an kori su a Yakin Long Island, sai Kwamandan su George Washington ya sake shirya sojoji kimanin 3000 suka tsallako Kogin Delaware domin kawo harin ramuwa. Harin yayi musu kyau, domin kuwa sun sami damar yiwa sojojin Ingila barna mai yawa.

George Washington da sojojin sa yayin tsallaka Kogin Delaware. Source : wikipedia.org

1777-1783

Shekarar 1777 ta kasance shekara mai albrka ga Amurka, domin kuwa a watan October sojojin ta karkashin jagorancin General Horatio Gates sun fatattaki sojojin Ingila karkashin jagorancin General John Burgoyne a wani gari mai suna Saratoga. Haka kuma wannan nasara ta Yakin Saratoga ta tabbatarwa da duniya cewa Amurkwa a shirye suke. Don haka ne ma kasar Faransa da Spain suka yarda su taimakawa Amurka a Yakin.

Kasar Faransa ta yarda da yancin Amurka, sannan kuma ta kulla huldar diplomasiyya ta kasuwanci da jakadanci da Amurka. A watan July 1778, Faransa sojojin Faransa karkashin jagorancin Jean Baptiste Hector sun sauka a gabar Kogin Delaware. Haka kuma sun fara yin aikin su a watan October 1779 lokacin da suka yi hadin gwiwa da sojojin Amurka karkashin jagorancin General Benjamin Lincoln wanda aka tura domin ya jagoranci yaki a kudancin kasa.

Yayin da sojojin Ingila suka fahimci cewa sun fara rasa nasara a yankin arewacin kasa, sai suka fara mayar da hankalin su a kudancin kasa. Don haka ne suka kafa karfin su a Yankin Georgia.

Zuwa shekarar 1780, kusan gaba dayan Yakin Yancin Amurka ya koma kudancin kasa. A watan Mayu 1780, sojojin Ingila karkashin jagorancin Henry Clinton sun sami nasara akan sojojin Amurka a wani harin bazata da suka kai a Yankin South Carolina inda suka sami nasarar kama birnin Charleston. Haka kuma, sojojin Ingila sun sake samun nasara akan sojojin Amurka karkashin Horatio Gates a garin Camden a dai Yankin na South Carolina.

A watan Mayu 1781, sojojin Amurka karkashin jagorancin Major General Nathaniel Greene sun yiwa sojojin Ingila barna karkashin jagorancin General Charles Cornwallis a garin Guildford dake Cour House a Yankin North Carolina. Koda yake sojojin Ingila sun sami nasara, amma illar da aka yi musu ce ta tilasta su ja da baya zuwa garin Yorktown domin karin shiri.

Bayan da sojojin Ingila suka isa garin Yorktown sai suka tsaya jiran karin sojoji wanda suka taho zuwa Yorktown. To amma kash!, sojojin Faransa sun tare sojojin zuwa Yorktown. A wani bangaren kuma, akalla hadin gwiwar sojojin Amurka 15000 aka shirya karkashin jagorancin Kwamandoji hudu General George Washington, General Anthony Wayne, General Lafayette, and Baron Von Steuben domin kaiwa sojojin Ingila hari a garin Yorktown. Daga karshe hadin gwiwar sojojin sun isa Yorktown inda suka zagaye garin. Wannan dalili ne ya tilasta sojojin Ingila karkashin jagorancin Charles Cornwallis yin saranda a watan October 1781.

Nasarar sojojin Amurka a Yorktown ita ce ta zama zakaran gwajin dafi wanda ya tabbatar da cewa lallai sojojin Amurkan sun ci karfin sojojin Ingila. Don haka ne tun daga lokacin Yakin Yancin Amurka ya fara zuwa karshe.

Yarjejeniyar Paris da kuma karewar Yakin

Yakin Yancin Amurka yazo karshe a lokacin da gwamnatin kasar Ingila ta yarda da yin yarjejeniya da Amurka.

A ranar 3 ga September, 1783, wakilan Amurka bisa jagorancin John Adams da Benjamin Franklin sun hadu da wakilan kasar Ingila a birnin Paris inda suka kulla yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya.

A karkashin Yarjejeniyar wadda a turance ake kira da ‘Treaty of Paris’, kasar Ingila ta yadda da yancin Amurka, sannan kuma ta yarda da fadin kasar Amurka ya kasance daga duwatsun Appalachian daga yamma zuwa Mississippi daga gabas. Sannan daga Great Lakes a arewa zuwa Florida a kudu.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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