HausaTsohon Tarihi

WAYEWAR KAN MUTANEN EGYPT

Taswirar Yankin Egypt. Source : ancient-egypt-online.com

Wayewar Kan Mutanen Egypt wadda a turance ake kira da “Egyptian Civilization” tana daya daga cikin farko farkon wayewar kai da mutane suka samu a tarihin duniya.

Ita wannan Wayewar Kan Mutane da aka samu a Egypt ta bunkasa ne a bakin gabar Kogin da ake kira Nile a tsakanin shekaru 3100 zuwa wajejen 2686 kafin al-Masihu.

Wayewar Kan Mutanen Egypt ta bunkasa, ya kasance cike da rairayin Sahara, amma kuma Kogin Nile ya ratsa zuwa arewa daga tabkunan gabashin Africa zuwa Tekun Mediterranean. Saboda haka, ratsawar Kogin Nile shine ya bada damar yiwuwar zaman mutane har aka samu wannan Wayewar Kan ta Mutanen Egypt.

Zaman mutane da wayewar Kai a Egypt ta faru ne da kuma bunkasa sakamakon dama da kogin Nilu ya basu na yin noma . Kamar yadda yake a yanzu, yankin Kogin Nile kasa ce mai kyau wadda ta bawa mutane damar zama a gabar Kogin kuma suke noma alkama, sha’ir, dabino, da kuma yayan itatuwa da kayan lambu.

Mutanen Egypt sun kafa manyan birane kamar Memphis, Luxor,Giza, Saqqara, Giza, da sauran su.

Tsarin Shugabanci a Wayewar Kan Mutane ta Egypt

A tsarin mulki da Shugabanci a Tsohuwar Egypt, Fir’auna wato Sarki shine shugaban duk mutanen sa. Kuma yana da cikakken iko akan kowa.

A tarihance, Egypt ta kasance a rabe gida biyu tsakanin Egypt ta Sama (Upper Egypt) da kuma Egypt ta Kasa (Lower Egypt), har zuwa shekarar 3100 kafin al-Masihu lokacin da Sarki Menes ya hade su guri guda, kuma ya kafa daular sarakuna ta Fir’aunonin.

Masarautu a Zamanin Wayewar Kan Mutanen Egypt

Masana da dama sun yarda da cewa a tarihin Wayewar Kan Mutane ta Egypt an samu jerin Masarautu guda uku kamar haka :

Tsohuwar Masarauta (2258-2080 kafin al-Masihu)

Tsohuwar Masarauta ita ce masarauta ta farko da aka kafa a tarihin Wayewar Kan Mutanen Egypt. Kuma ta mulki Egypt ne tsakanin 2250 zuwa 2080 kafin al-Masihu.

A Wannan lokacin ne na Tsohuwar Masarauta, tsarin shugabanci na shugaba guda daya ya fara. Fir’auna shine shugaban mutanen Egypt, kuma shine yake nada sauran masu taimaka masa wajen gudanar da mulkin mutanen sa.

Tsohuwar Masarauta ta fara zazzabi ko alamar rushewa bayan samun lalacewar tattalin arziki a Egypt, wanda ya janyo samun kalubale ga Fir’aunonin karshe na Tsohuwar Masarauta wajen tafiyar da al’amuran mulki. Daga karshe Tsohuwar Masatauta ta rushe a shekarar 2080 kafin al-Masihu.

Masarauta ta Tsakiya (2080-1780 kafin al-Masihu)

Masarauta ta Tsakiya ta fara ne bayan da aka samu dawowar nutsuwa a Egypt, lokacin da sabon Fir’auna mai suna Mentuhotep II ya kama sarauta, kuma ya canza babban birni daga Memphis zuwa birnin Thebes.

Fir’auna Mentuhotep II ya kawo sabbin gyare gyare wanda zasu kawo wa Egypt ci gaba da kuma kaucewa duk matsalolin da suka janyo rushewar Tsohuwar Masarauta. Sakamakon wannan chanje chanje ne ma yasa Fir’aunonin Masarauta ta Tsakiya basu samu cikaken iko kamar yadda na Tsohuwar Masarauta suka samu ba. Saboda duk Fir’aunan da yake mulki, to dole ne ya tafiyar da mulkin sa tare da malaman addini da kuma wasu manyan mutane a Egypt.

Ita ma Masarauta ta Tsakiya ta fara alamun rushewa ne a zamanin Fir’auna Amenemhat III bayan da aka samu matsalar tattalin arziki, da kuma wasu kabilu da ake kira Hyksos suka dinga addabar Egypt har suka mamaye mulki wanda ya kawo karshen Masarauta ta Tsakiya.

Sabuwar Masarauta 1549-1069

Sabuwar Masarauta ita ce masarauta ta karshe, kuma mafi dadewa da tasiri a tarihin Wayewar Kan Mutanen Egypt.

Sabuwar Masarauta ta bunkasa ne sakamakon tsare-tsaren da Fir’aunonin ta na farko farko suka samar na kare iyakokin Egypt da kuma karfafa dangantaka da sauran makwabtan kasashe na Assyria, Babylonia, da kuma Canaan.

A zamanin Fir’auna Akheneton aka chanja tsarin addinin mutanen Egypt daga na bautawa alloli da yawa zuwa na bautawa ubangiji daya wato ubangijin rana da ake kira Aton. Fir’auna Akheneton shine ya fara bautawa ubangijin rana wato Aton, kuma ya tilasta duk sauran mutanen Egypt da su kawar da gumakansu daga guraren bauta, sannan su fara bautawa Aton.

Sabuwar Masarauta ta kai kololuwar bunkasar ta ne zamanin Fir’auna Ramesses II wanda a musulunce aka fi sani da Fir’aunan Annabi Musa. A lokacin Fir’auna Ramesses II Egypt ta samu karfin iko akan sauran kasashe makwabtanta. Haka kuma a lokacin sa ne Egypt ta sami ginin kasaitattun fadoji, gine ginen mutumutumi, da kuma dogayen gine ginen girmamawa. Sannan kuma Fir’auna Ramesses II ya chanja tsarin addinin mutanen Egypt daga bautar rana zuwa bauta masa. Domin yayi ikirarin cewa shi ubangiji ne.

Sabuwar Masarauta ta fara fuskantar faduwa a wajejen shekarar 1078 kafin al-Masihu, lokacin da mulkin Egypt ya rabu tsakanin kabilun Samundas a arewacin Egypt da kuma wasu malaman addini a kudancin Egypt, daga bisani kuma Sabuwar Masarauta ta rushe.

Gine-Gine a Egypt

Mutanen Egypt sun kasance na farko da suka samar da dogayen gine gine a tarihin duniya. Wadannan gine sune kamar na Dalar gini wadda a turance muka fi sani da ‘pyramids‘. Wanda har zuwa yau wadannan Dalar ginin suna nan kuma mutanen Egypt na yanzu suna alfahari da su.

Kasaitattun ginin Dalar Pyramid ta Giza. Source : creativecommons.org

Rubutun hieroglyphic

Mutanen Egypt sun samar da tsarin rubutu da ake kira da hieroglypic wanda a yanayin sa kamar zanen hotuna yake. An fara rubutun ne na hieroglypic a 2800 kafin al-Masihu, kuma ya bunkasa a wajejen shekara ta 2000 kafin al-Masihu.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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