No any other concrete civilization have ever existed in the world before the Mesopotamian Civilization. The civilization has thrived in the Valley of Tigris and the Euphrates in about 3000 BC.
The fact that Mesopotamian Civilization was the first in the history of the world, was because the valley was fertile which made the area conducive for the settlement of people. Therefore, the people started growing wheat and barley on the hillside of Zagros Mountains, along the eastern edge of the Fertile Crescent. Gradually, the natural environment supported the growing of more wild wheat and barley, wild sheep, goats, and even pigs. This was what in short helped this early people started settling and learn how to grow grain and domisticated animals.
As people now settled in the Mesopotamian Valley, the population grew and people had to find ways which will sustain the growing society. Therefore, the farmers created ways of irrigating crops with the surrounding river water. This in turn, led people in Mesopotamia to build and maintain irrigation canals and to defend the canals from any misappropriation rather than the use for farming.
RELIGION IN MESOPOTAMIA
After the invention of agriculture, then religion was initiated which continue to bring people together. The religion was first practiced in Mesopotamia in one of its cities called Sumer where people worshipped many gods. This gave the Sumerians to believed that every city belonged to a god who lived in the temple and ruled the affairs of the city. This was what made temple in Sumer the center of government and other hand the place where religious activities took place.
The priests in the temples acted as intermediaries between the people and their gods. Because, the farmers were taught and believed that, for the success of their farming, they need the blessings of their gods. This was what also gave the priests a status of the powerful citizens in Mesopotamia. These temples were also economic centers, because items were traded and food were given to the population of the cities.
LAW IN MESOPOTAMIA
Regarding the laws that will govern the people, Mesopotamians became the first to people to set out laws to be ever made in the history of the world known as the “Hammurabi Code of Law” was established by King Hammurabi, the King of Babylon City in about 1700 BC. These laws are as follows :
- Theft : (1) If a person was caught hiding the king’s lost slave or any free citizen, that person will be killed by law. (2) Any person caught in a house trying to steal something, that person shall be killed and buried there. (3) Any person caught with robbery, that person shall be put to death.
- Suffering from hardship : If a crop of a farmer was destroyed by floods send by the God of Weather or does not send enough water for the crop, that person shall not pay the interest of his debt for that year.
- Family : (1) Any wife who wastes her husband’s wealth, her husband has the right to divorce her, and remarry. (2) If a son has struck his father, the son’s hand shall be cut off.