HausaTarihin Nigeria

YAKIN BASASAR NIGERIA

Daga sama Shugaban Biafra ne Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu da tutar su ta Jamhuriyar Biafra. Daga kasa kuma Shugaban Nigeria ne General Yakubu Gowon tare da tutar Nigeria. Source: steemit.com

Yakin Basasar Nigeria ko Yakin Biafra wani yaki ne da aka gudanar a tsakanin sojojin Nigeria masu son tabbar da dunkulalliyar Nigeria da kuma sojojin Jamhuriyar Biafra wanda suka balle daga kasar Nigeria.

Yakin Basasar Nigeria ya fara ne lokacin da Yankin Lardin Gabas na Inyamurai (Eastern Region) suka bayyana cewar sun balle daga Tarayyar Jamhuriyar Nigeria a Shekarar 1967.

Basasar Nigeria ya fara ranar 6 ga watan July, 1967, ya kuma kare a ranar 12 ga Janairu, 1970, wato kimanin shekaru uku kenan.

Asalin Yakin

Kafin barkewar Yakin Basasar Nigeria an samu faruwar juyin mulki a Nigeria har guda biyu wanda dukkan su aka yi su a bisa doron kabilanci da bangaranci.

Juyin Mulki na farko an yi shi ne a ranar 15 ga Janairu, 1966. Wadanda suka jagoranci Juyin Mulkin na 15 ga Janairu sun kasance matasan sojoji yan Kabilar Igbo (Inyamurai) karkashin jagorancin Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu da Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna. Matasan sojojin na Kabilar Igbo sun kashe manyan yan siyasar Arewa wanda suka hada Shugaban Gwamnatin Nigeria Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Shugaban Lardin Arewa Sir Ahmadu Bello, Shugaban Lardin Yamma Chief Samuel Akintola, da sauran su.

Juyin Mulki na biyu an gudanar da shine a a watan July na shekarar 1966 wanda a cikin sa manyan sojojin Arewa suka hada kan su suka gudanar a matsayin ramuwar gayya akan yadda sojoji yan Kabilar Igbo suka kashe manyan jagororin Arewa. A yayin Juyin Mulkin na watan July, sojojin Arewa sun hambarar da Gwamnatin General Aguiyi-Ironsi wanda yake ya fito ne daga Kabilar Igbo. Bayan Juyin Mulkin manyan sojojin Arewa sun dora dan uwan su dan Arewa amma kuma Kirista wato General Yakubu Gowon.

FARUWAR RIGINGIMUN KABILANCI

Bayan Nigeria ta fuskanci kalubalen faruwar Juyin Mulki har guda biyu wanda suka kasance an yi su ne bisa kabilanci, sai kuma rigingimun kabilanci da kuntatawa juna a tsakanin bangarorin Nigeria guda biyu suka barke, tsakanin mutanen Arewa da na Kudu musamman Inyamurai.

Tun da aka gudanar da Juyin Mulkin 15 ga watan Janairun 1966 wanda sojoji Inyamurai suka kashe manyan Jagororin Arewa, mutanen Arewa suka fara tsangwamar Inyamurai tare da kai musu farmaki a gurare da dama a manyan biranen Arewa irin su Kano da Kaduna. Don haka ne su ma Inyamurai suka fara kaiwa yan Arewa musamman Hausawa farmaki a wasu daga cikin biranen su irin su Enugu da Onitsha.

Don haka ne da matsalolin tsangwama da hare-hare suka yi yawa akan Inyamurai a Arewa, sai Gwamnan Soja na Lardin Gabas Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu ya yi kira ga Gwamnatin Nigeria da ta tabbatar ta kare dukkanin Inyamuri da yake zaune a Arewa. Daga bisani kuma ya yi kira ga dukkan wani mutum dan Kabilar Igbo da yake zaune a Arewacin Nigeria da ya dawo gida domin rayuwar sa. Wannan kira nasa kuma ya samu karbuwa yayin da Inyamurai akalla mutum miliyan 1 suka bar Arewa zuwa Yankin su na Inyamurai.

A nata bangaren, Gwamnatin Nigeria karkashin jagorancin General Yakubu Gowon ta fahimci cewar wannan rigingimun kabilanci da suke faruwa a kasa, suna iya raba kan kasa tare da hana tafiyar da al’amura yadda ya kamata. Don haka ne Shugaba Gowon ya gabatar da jawabin kasa akan zaman lafiya. Haka kuma ya gayyaci Gwamnonin Soja na dukkan Larduna tare da manyan hafsoshin soja zuwa Fadar kasa dake Lagos domin tattaunawa akan yadda za’a warware matsalar. Sai dai kash !, taron ya kare ba tare da cimma wata matsaya ba.

Ana cikin wannan hali ne, sai Shugaban Kasar Ghana J.A. Ankrah yayi wani yunkuri domin ganin an kawo karshen rashin fahimtar juna dake tsakanin Shugaban Nigeria General Yakubu Gowon da Gwamnan Lardin Gabas Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, da kuma kawo karshen rigingimun kabilanci a Nigeria. An gudanar da taron a watan Janairu 1967 a wani gari mai suna Aburi dake kasar ta Ghana wanda ya samu halartar General Yakubu Gowon, Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, da kuma wakilan Lardunan Nigeria guda hudu. A cikin taron an cimma matsaya guda uku kamar haka :

  • Taron ya amince da ci cewar ikon yin doka da zartarwa yaci gaba da kasancewa a karkashin ikon Majalisar Koli ta Mulkin Soja wato a turance Supreme Military Council, amma tare da tuntubar Gwamnonin Soja na Larduna.
  • Taron ya amince cewa duk wani nadi zuwa wani babban mataki a soja, yansanda, ko aikin gwamnati ya kasance bisa amincewar Majalisar Koli ta Mulkin Soja.
  • Haka kuma taron ya amince cewar bisa roko da wakilan Larduna suka yi na soke dukkan wata doka da ta ragewa Gwamnatocin Larduna iko tun daga Juyin Mulki na farko

Bayan an dawo Nigeria, anyi tunanin cewar Shugaba Gowon zai zartar da wadannan abubuwa guda uka, amma sai yaki. Maimakon haka ma, sai ya fara kokarin rushe Larduna tare da kirkiro Jihohi a madadin su.

Kwatsam !, a ranar 29 ga watan Mayu, 1967, Shugaban Mulkin Sojan Nigeria General Yakubu Gowon ya ayyana dokar soja mai lamba 14 wato a turance Military Decree No. 14 wadda a karkashin ta ya ya rushe Lardunan Nigeria guda hudu tare da kirkiro Jihohi guda 12 a madadin su kamar haka :

  1. Lagos State
  2. Southwestern State
  3. Bendel
  4. Rivers State
  5. East Central State
  6. Cross River State
  7. Benue-Plateau State
  8. Kwara State
  9. Northwestern State
  10. Northeastern State
  11. Kaduna
  12. Kano

Ana sa bangaren, Gwamnan Soja na Lardin Gabas Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu ya nuna bacin ran sa akan kirkiro Jihohi a Nigeria wanda ya bayyana a matsayin wani kokari na rusa Inyamurai. Don haka ne shi kuma a ranar 30 ga watan Mayu na 1967 ya bayyana ballewar Lardin Gabas daga Nigeria tare da ayyana yankin a matsayin sabuwar Jamhuriyar Biafra.

Barkewar Yakin Basasar Nigeria

Bayan ayyana ballewar Lardin Gabas daga Tarayyar Nigeria, ya tabbata cewa lallai Yakin Basasar Nigeria zai barke.

Taswira mai nuna inda Jamhuriyar Biafra take Source : commons.m.wikimedia.com

Yakin Basasar Nigeria ya barke ne a ranar 6 ga watan July, 1967, bayan da Gwamnatin Nigeria ta aika rundunar soja ta biyu karkashin jagorancin Colonel Muhammad Shuwa zuwa yankin Biafra domin yakar yan tawaye. Sai dai kuma sojojin Biafra sun tunkari sojojin Nigeria domin hana su shiga cikin yankin na Biafra.

A ranar 6 ga watan July, 1967, sojojin Biafra suka afka cikin Lardin Yamma ta Tsakiya inda suka samu nasarar mamaye muhimman gurare ciki har da birnin Benin.

Gwamnatin Nigeria karkashin jagorancin General Yakubu Gowon ta fuskanci cewa barin sojojin Biafra su ci gaba da kasancewa a Yankin Yamma ta Tsakiya wani babban kalubale ne ga kokarin murkushe yan tawayen na Biafra. Don haka ne aka shirya rundunar sojojin Nigeria ta biyu karkashin jagorancin Colonel Murtala Muhammad domin yakar sojojin Biafra a Yankin na Yamma ta Tsakiya. A ranar 20 ga watan September, 1967, Sojojin Nigeria na Rundunar Soja ta biyu karkashin jagorancin Colonel Murtala Muhammad sun afkawa sojojin Biafra inda aka fafata yaki har na tsawon kwana biyu, wanda daga karshe sojojin Nigeria suka karbe birnin Benin. Zuwa shigowar shekarar 1968, sojojin Nigeria sun sami damar fatattakar sojin Biafra daga Yankin Yamma ta Tsakiya. Duk da haka, sojojin Nigeria sun ci gaba da mamaya har sai da suka mamaye Yankin Delta wanda ya bada damar zagaye Biafra a tsakiya, wanda a wani hannun kuma ya tabbatar da cewa Biafra bata da iyaka da teku wanda zai iya bata damar shigo da makamai ta ruwa. Haka kuma Gwamnatin Nigeria tayi amfani da wannan dama wajen toshe duk wata kafa wadda za’a iya shigar da makamai ko abinci zuwa Biafra, wanda hakan kuma ya janyo matsalar yunwa ga al’ummar Biafra.

A ranar 4 ga watan October, 1967, sojojin Nigeria sun sami nasarar kama Enugu babban birnin Jamhuriyar Biafra. Wannan nasara ta kame birnin Enugu da sojojin Nigeria suka yi ya kara musu kwarin gwiwa, a wani hannun kuma ya ragewa sojojin Biafra karsashi.

Zuwa farko-farkon shekarar 1968, Yakin Basasar Nigeria ya kasance a tsaye cak yayin da sojojin Biafra suka yi tsayuwar daka wajen hana sojojin Nigeria sake kutsawa cikin yankin su. Sai dai a watan Mayu 1968, sojojin Nigeria sun yi wani yunkuri ta hanyar afkawa tare da kama birnin Portharcourt. Haka kuma a watan September 1968, sojojin Nigeria sun kama birnin Owerri, duk da cewa sojojin Biafra sun karbe birnin daga baya.

Da wadannan nasarori, Gwamnatin Nigeria karkashin jagorancin General Yakubu Gowon ta ci gaba da toshe duk wata kofa wadda za’a yi shigar da makamai ko abinci zuwa cikin Biafra. Gwamnatin tayi hakan ne kuma domin ta tilastawa Biafra ajiye makaman ta domin yin sulhu. Amma maimakon ajiye makaman ta, Gwamnatin Biafra karsashin jagorancin Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu ta yi amfani da farfaganda ga kasashen duniya cewa Nigeria tana so ta kashe al’ummar Biafra da yunwa. Wasu daga cikin kasashe da kungiyoyin duniya sun amsa wannan kira na Ojukwu ta hanyar aikowa da Gwamnatin Biafra tallafin makamai da abinci.

Karewar Yakin Basasar Nigeria

Zuwa shekarar 1969, sojojin Biafra sun fara yanke kauna daga yin nasara a Yakin da suke da sojojin Nigeria, bayan da Shugaban Gwamnatin Biafra Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu ya yayi wani kira ga Majalisar Dinkin Duniya domin ta shiga tsakani a Yakin Basasar Nigeria. Sai dai Gwamnatin Nigeria tace babu wani sulhu har sai Gwamnatin Biafra ta umarci sojojin ta da su ajiye makamai, amma hakan bata yiwu ba.

Sojojin Nigeria sun ci gaba da samun nasara a Yakin na Basasar Nigeria. A watan December na shekarar 1969, sojojin Nigeria karkashin wata babbar runduna bisa jagorancin Colonel Olusegun Obasanjo sun afka cikin Yankin Biafra da niyyar mamaye yankin gaba daya. Rundunar sojojin Nigeria sun sami damar raba Biafra zuwa gida biyu, wanda a ciki ne suka kama birnin Owerri birni daya mai muhimmanci wanda ya rage a karkashin Gwamnatin Biafra.

Bayan kama birnin Owerri, sai gwiwar Shugaban Biafra Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu ta yi sanyi, don haka ne ya gudu yabar Biafra zuwa kasar Ivory Coast domin samun mafaka. Daga bisani, Mataimakin Shugaban Biafra wanda Ojukwu ya bar iko a hannun sa, wato Colonel Philip Effiong ya sanar da ajiye makamai tare da mika wuya ga Gwamnatin Nigeria karkashin jagorancin General Yakubu Gowon a Lagos a ranar 12 ga watan Janairu, 1970.

Tallafawar Kasashen Duniya

A yayin da ake gudanar da Yakin Basasar Nigeria, kasashen duniya da dama sun bada gudunmawar su a cikin Yakin musamman ta hanyar bada makamai. A cikin kasashen, wasu sun goyi bayan Gwamnatin Nigeria wasu kuma sun goyi bayan Gwamnatin yan tawayen Biafra kamar haka :

Magoya Bayan Nigeria

  1. United Kingdom 
  2. Soviet Union
  3. United States
  4. Canada 
  5. Bulgaria
  6. Ethiopia
  7. Senegal
  8. Somalia
  9. Sierra Leone
  10. Cameroon
  11. Niger
  12. Algeria
  13. Syria
  14. Saudi Arabia

Magoya Bayan Biafran

  1. France
  2. China
  3. West Germany 
  4. Israel
  5. Portugal
  6. Spain
  7. Holy See (Vatican)
  8. South Africa
  9. Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
  10. Haiti
  11. Gabon
  12. Ivory Coast
  13. Tanzania

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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