HausaTarihin Nigeria

JAMHURIYAR NIGERIA TA FARKO 1960-1966

Tutar Yantacciyar Nigeria. Source : A Public Domain wikipedia.org

Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko ta kasance wani lokaci wanda cikakkun yan Nigeria suka karbi ikon tafiyar da harkokin kasa ba tare da katsalandan daga wata kasa ba.

Nigeria ta zama kasa mai yanci a ranar 1 ga watan October, 1960, bayan shekaru 60 na Mulkin Mallakar kasar Ingila. Wanda hakan kuma shine ya tabbatar da farawar Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko wadda a turance ake kira da Nigerian First Republic.

To amma kash !, bayan shekaru kamar biyu zuwa uku da samun yancin kai, matsalolin kabilanci da rikice-rikicen siyasa sun yi wa Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko tarnaki wanda ya janyo faruwar rigingimu daban-daban tun daga Kidayar jama’a ta 1962/1963 har zuwa shekarar 1966 lokacin da sojojin Nigeria suka hambarar da mulkin farar hula wanda ya kawo karshen Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko, tare da kafa Mulkin Soja a duk fadin kasa.

Asali

Asalin kafa Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko ya fara ne tun daga shekarar 1959, lokacin da aka gudanar da Babban Zaben Kasa domin kafa Gwamnatin yan kasa wadda zata karbi mulki daga hannun Turawan Ingila a shekarar 1960. Bayan kammala Zaben, sakamako ya nuna cewa Jam’iyyar NPC ta mutanen Arewa ita ce Jam’iyya wadda ta samu kujeru mafiya rinjaye a Majalisar Dokokin Kasa, don haka aka bukaci da ta kafa Gwamnati. Saboda haka ne a kokarin kafa Gwamnatin ne, sai Jam’iyyar NPC ta kulla kawancen siyasa wanda a turance ake kira da political coalition da Jam’iyyar NCNC ta Inyamurai domin kafa Gwamnati mai karfi.

Bayan an kafa Gwamnatin kasa, Mataimakin Shugaban Jam’iyyar NPC Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ya zama Shugaban Gwamnatin Nigeria wato a turance Prime Minister, yayin da kuma sauran mukamai da ya kunshi Ministoci sai aka raba a tsakanin yan Jam’iyya da suka fito daga hadakar Jam’iyyun NPC da NCNC.

A daya bangare kuma, Jam’iyyar AG ta Yarabawa ta kasance Jam’iyyar adawa a kasa tare da Shugaban Jam’iyyar Chief Obafemi Awolowo a matsayin Shugaban yan Adawa na kasa wato a turance National Opposition Leader.

Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko 1960-1962

Daga shekarar 1960 lokacin da Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko ta fara, bayan samun yancin kan Nigeria zuwa wajejen shekarar 1962 zuwa 1963 sun kasance shekarun da shugabannin Nigeria suka dukufa wajen gina kasa.

ALAKA DA KASASHEN DUNIYA

Shekarun farko-farko na Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta farko sun kasance shekaru wanda Gwamnatin Nigeria karkashin jagorancin Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ta maida hankali wajen gina alaka da kasashen duniya tare da Kungiyoyin duniya. A tsarin da Nigeria ta dauka a alakar ta da sauran kasashen duniya shine cewar ita Nigeria kasar yan ba ruwan mu ce wadda ta yarda tayi hulda da kowace kasa ba tare da daukan bangaranci ba wanda a turance ake kira da neutrality. Haka kuma kasar Nigeria ta amince da nahiyar Africa a matsayin farko na alakar ta da kasashen duniya wanda yake nufin Nigeria zata bawa kasashen Africa muhimmanci akan sauran kasashe wanda ba na Africa ba.

Hoton Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa a ofis. Source : commons.m.wikimedia.org

A ranar 7 ga watan October, 1960, kasar Nigeria ta shiga Kungiyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a matsayin yar Kungiya ta 99 a jerin kasashen Kungiyar. A yayin shiga Kungiyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniyar, Shugaban Nigeria Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ya gabatar da wani jawabi a Majalisar, inda ya bayyana aniyar Nigeria na bada gudunmawa wajen kawo zaman lafiya da fahimtar juna a tsakanin kasashen duniya.

A kokarin Nigeria na kare mutunci da yancin kasashen Africa, a watan January na shekarar 1961, Gwamnatin Nigeria ta yanke alakar diplomasiyya da kasar Faransa a dalilin gwajin makami mai guba da tayi a yankin Sahara.

A watan May na shekarar 1961 kuma, Shugaban Gwamnatin Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ya halarci taron birnin Monrovia wanda ya kasance taron kasashen da suka yarda da yin amfani da manufofi masu sauki a tsakanin a mu’amular su da sauran kasashen duniya wato a turance moderate foreign policy.

A haka kuma dai, a watan July na shekarar 1961, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ya ziyar ci kasar Amurka inda ya sami tarba ta musamman daga gurin Shugaban Amurka na wancan lokaci wato John Kennedy a Fadar White House dake birnin Washington. Bayan Shugabannin sun gama ganawa, sai Shugaban Nigeria Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ya nufi Majalisar Dokokin Kasar ta Amurka inda ya gabatar da jawabi akan muhimmancin alakar kasashen biyu.

AYYUKAN CIKIN GIDA

Al’amuran cikin gida ma a tsakanin shekarun farko na Jamhuriyar Nigeria sun kasance wajen kokarin gina kasa ta yadda zata zauna da kafafunta.

A watan Afrilu na shekarar 1961, wakilan al’ummar yankunan Benin da Delta suka gabatar da kudurin neman kirkiro Lardin Yamma ta Tsakiya wato a turance Mid-West Region daga Lardin Yamma wanda Yarabawa suka fi yawa. Kokarin neman kirkiro sabon Lardin ya samo asali ne tun kafin yancin kai lokacin da Chief Anthony Enahoro ya jagoranci gwagwarmayar neman kirkiro Lardin a shekarar 1951. Sai dai mutanen Yarabawa sun soki al’amarin inda suka bayyana shi a matsayin wani kokari na ragewa Lardin su na Yamma tasiri.

A watan March na shekarar 1962 kuma, Gwamnatin Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko a kokarin ta na gina tattalin arziki mai karfi a Nigeria ta amince da kashe dalar Amurka miliyan $225 a Tsarin Gina Kasa na shekaru shida wato a turance Six Year Development Plan (1962-1968). Bayan Majalisar Kasa ta amince sai kuma Shugaban Gwamnatin Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ya saka hannu akan tsarin. A Tsarin Gina Kasar, anyi tsarin canza tattalin arzikin Nigeria daga irin na Turawan Mulkin Mallaka zuwa na zamani wanda zai mayar da hankali wajen gina masana’antu da habaka harkar noma musamman na zamani. A cikin tsarin, harda shirin gina madatsun ruwa domin samar da wutar lantarki wanda mafi muhimmanci a ciki shine na gina madatsar ruwa ta Ka’inji wato a turance Ka’inji Dam.

Farawar Rigingimu a Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko

Kamar yadda muka fada al’amuran tafiyar da sabuwar Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko ya kasance cikin kwanciyar hankali ne kawai na tsawon shekaru 2 zuwa 3, wato daga 1960 zuwa 1963. Amma bayan wadannan shekaru, sai kuma matsaloli da suka shafi siyasa da kabilanci suka fara yiwa al’amuran kasa tarnaki. Farkon lamarin da ya fara kawo cikas a al’amuran tafiyar da Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko shine Kidayar Jama’a da aka gudanar ta shekarun 1962/1963.

Sai dai tun kafin samun yancin kai, kasar Nigeria ta kasance a tsarin tafiyar da siyasa da Jam’iyyu akan doron kabilanci, addinanci, da kuma bangaranci. Wannan ne ma ya janyo duka Jam’iyyun da ake da su a Nigeria a zamanin Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko suka kasance masu manufofin nuna bangaranci a wani hannun kuma da nuna kabilanci. Haka kuma wannan dalili ya janyo matsalar zargi da kuma kokarin danne juna a tsakanin manyan kabilun Nigeria wato Hausawa, Yarabawa, da kuma Inyamurai wato Igbo.

KIDAYAR JAMA’A TA SHEKARAR 1962/1963

A shekarar 1962 an gudanar da Kidayar Jama’a domin sanin adadin al’ummar Nigeria ta yadda za’a sake fasalin rabon arzikin kasa da kuma rabon kujerun wakilci a Majalisar Dokokin Kasa. Kafin Kidayar, Nigeria ta kasance akan lissafin jama’a tun na lokacin Turawan Mulkin Mallakar Ingila, wanda ya nuna cewar Lardin Arewa shine Lardi mafi yawan jama’a a kasa. Don haka ne kafin gudanar da Kidayar shekarar ta 1962, daukacin Lardunan Nigeria musamman na Lardin Gabas na Inyamurai da Lardin Yamma na Yarabawa suka shirya tsaf don ganin sun kamo Lardin Arewa a yawa domin samun kaso mai yawa a rabon arzikin kasa.

An gudanar da Kidayar a watan Mayu na shekarar ta 1962, a daukacin kasa baki daya. A yayin gudanar da Kidayar an samu matsalolin karya ka’idoji ta hanyar canza al’kalumu na gaskiya. Sai dai duk da haka, bayan an kammala Kidayar, sakamako ya nuna cewa Lardin Arewa shine dai yafi kowanne Lardi yawan jama’a a Nigeria. To amma Shugabannin kudancin Nigeria sun yi watsi da sakamakon Kidayar, inda suka bukaci a gudanar da sabuwar Kidaya. Bayan duba na tsanaki, sai Gwamnatin Nigeria ta amince da a gudanar da sabuwar Kidaya a shekarar 1963.

A watan Nuwamba na shekarar 1963 an gudanar da sabuwar Kidayar Jama’a, sai dai an ki sanar da sakamakon Kidayar saboda dalili na tsaro da kuma kokarin kawo hadin kan kasa.

RIGINGIMUN SIYASAR LARDIN YAMMA DA KUMA DAURE AWOLOWO

Barkewar rigingimun siyasa a Lardin Yamma na Yarabawa wanda ya janyo rabuwar Jam’iyyar AG zuwa gida biyu da kuma daure Chief Obafemi Awolowo a gidan kurkuku ya taimaka wajen kara rura wutar rikici da hargitsewar al’amura a zamanin Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko.

Kafin barkewar rigingimun siyasa a Lardin na Yamma, Chief Obafemi Awolowo ya kasance jagoran siyasar yankin wanda ya shugabanci Gwamnatin Lardin har na tsawon shekaru hudu daga 1954 zuwa shekarar 1959. A shekarar 1959 ne ya sauka daga Shugabancin Lardin Yamma domin tsayawa zabe a matsayin dan Majalisar Dokokin Kasa wanda zai bashi damar zama Shugaban Gwamnatin Nigeria idan har Jam’iyyar sa ta AG ta samu rinjaye a Majalisar. Don haka ne da zai sauka sai ya dora Mataimakin sa Chief Samuel Akintola a matsayin sabon Shugaban Gwamnatin Lardin Yamma.

To amma bayan an samu yancin kai, kuma an shiga cikin Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko, sai Chief Samuel Akintola ya bukaci shigar da Jam’iyyar su AG cikin hadakar Jam’iyyun kasa domin samun tagomashi daga Gwamnatin tarayyar Nigeria maimakon ci gaba da zama Jam’iyyar adawa. To amma Jagoran Jam’iyyar ta AG na kasa Chief Obafemi Awolowo sai yaki yarda da bukatar yin hakan. Sai dai kash !, maimakon Chief Akintola ya amince da hukuncin Chief Awolowo, sai yayi gaban kansa ya fara harkar siyasa da Jam’iyyun adawa musamman Jam’iyyar NPC ta yan Arewa. Saboda haka, wannan jayayya a tsakanin Shugabannin guda biyu sai ta bude wutar rikicin siyasa wanda ya yayi tsamari har ta kai ana sare-sare da kashe-kashe a tsakanin magoya baya. Wannan dalili ne kuma ya tilasta Gwamnatin Nigeria ayyana dokar ta baci a daukacin Lardin Yamma a ranar 29 ga Mayu, 1962.

Bayan kamar wata uku kuma, sai aka kama Chief Obafemi Awolowo tare da wasu manyan yan siyasa kamar su Chief Anthony Enahoro, Joseph Tarka, da sauran su, a bisa zargin cin amanar kasa ta hanyar kokarin hambarar da Gwamnatin Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko. Bayan daukan kimanin wata goma ana yin shari’a, an yankewa Chief Obafemi Awolowo hukuncin shekaru goma a gidan yari, sauran wadanda ake zargi kuma aka daure su tsawon shekaru daban-daban a bisa nauyin laifin su.

Kafin yankewa Chief Obafemi Awolowo hukunci, an dage dokar ta baci a Lardin na Yamma a 1 ga watan Janairu, 1963. Wannan ne kuma ya bada damar dawo da al’amuran siyasa a Lardin, inda Chief Samuel Akintola ya kafa sabuwar Jam’iyya mai suna NNDP wadda ta bashi damar kafa sabuwar Gwamnatin Lardin Yamma. Sai dai kuma mutane da yawa ba a Lardin Yamma kadai ba har ma sauran yankunan Nigeria sun bayyana wannan juya-juyar siyasa a Lardin Yamma a matsayin wata makarkashiya wadda Gwamnatin Nigeria ta Jam’iyyar NPC ta shirya domin karya Chief Obafemi Awolowo a matsayin sa na Shugaban yan adawa a kasa.

Duk da cewa an kafa sabuwar Gwamnati a Lardin Yamma, bayan wasu yan lokutai, rigingimu sun sake barkewa musamman tsakanin magoya bayan Akintola da kuma na Awolowo wadanda suke ganin ba’a yi musu adalci ba musamman hukuncin da aka yiwa Shugaban nasu.

Babban Zaben 1964 da Rushewar Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko a 1966

Yayin da Nigeria ta ci gaba da kasancewa cikin rudanin siyasa da rigingimun kabilanci, a wani bangaren kuma Babban Zaben Kasa na Shekarar 1964 ya kawo kai. Jam’iyyun siyasa irin su NPC, NCNC, AG, NNDP, NEPU, da sauran su duk sun mayar da hankali wajen ganin sun sami nasara a Zaben. Daga bisani, wadannan Jam’iyyu da sauran wasu Jam’iyyun sun rabu zuwa gida biyu ta hanyar kulla kawancen siyasa da a turance ake kira da. Kawance na farko shine ake kira da turanci Nigerian National Alliance (NNA) wanda ya kunshi Jam’iyyar NPC da NNDP. Sai kuma Kawance na biyu wanda a turance ake kira da United Progressive Grand Alliance (UPGA) wanda ya kunshi manyan Jam’iyyun kudancin Nigeria na NCNC da AG.

AN SAKI SAKAMAKON KIDAYAR SHEKARAR 1963

Daidai lokacin da ake tunkarar Zaben Shekarar 1964, kwatsam kuma sai aka saki sakamakon Kidayar Kasa da aka gudanar tun a watan Satumba na shekarar 1963. Kuma sakamakon ya kasance kamar haka :

  1. Lardin Arewa : 29, 758, 875
  2. Lardin Gabas : 12, 394, 426
  3. Lardin Yamma : 10, 265, 846
  4. Lardin Yamma ta Tsakiya : 2, 35, 839
  5. Lagos : 665, 246

A Jimlace = 55, 620, 268

Ko da yake, wannan sakamakon Kidayar da aka fitar, mutanen kasa dama sun bayyana shi a matsayin sahihi idan aka kwatantata shi da na shekarar 1963, amma wasu yan Nigeria musamman a kudancin kasa sun yi watsi da sakamakon wanda suka bayyana a matsayin wani kokari na Gwamnatin Nigeria wajen kara fifita Lardin Arewa akan sauran yankunan Nigeria baki daya.

BABBAN ZABEN SHEKARAR 1964

An gudanar da Babban Zaben Shekarar 1964 cikin rudanin siyasa da kuma adawa mai zafi daga kowane bangare. Sai dai sakamakon ya tabbatar da Kawancen Siyasar Jam’iyyun NPC da NNDP na Nigerian National Alliance a matsayin wanda ya lashe kujeru mafiya rinjaye wanda ya basu damar kafa sabuwar Gwamnatin kasa.

Sai dai shima wannan sakamakon Zaben na Shekarar 1964 ya kasance wanda ya kara kawo rudani a cikin tafiyar da Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko. Domin kuwa yan adawa musamman daga kudancin Nigeria sun yi watsi da sakamakon wanda hakan ya fara alamta cewa lallai Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko na iya rushewa a dan gajeren lokaci.

Haka kuma, bayan sakin sakamakon Zaben ne wani rikici ya sake ballewa a Lardin Yamma inda ya yi tsamari har takai wasu suna kiran Lardin da suna a turance “The Theater of War” wato a Hausa ana nufin “Dandalin Rikici”. To amma, duk da wannan yanayi Gwamnatin Tarayyar Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko bata ayyana dokar ta baci a Lardin ba duk shawarar da aka bayar na yin hakan.

JUYIN MULKIN SHEKARAR 1966

Har zuwa watan Janairu na shekarar 1966, rigingimun siyasa da na kabilanci basu raguba sai dai kara ta’azzara da suke kara yi ma. Wannan ne ma ya sa wasu masu sharhin al’amuran yau da kullum a lokacin suka bayyana cewa komai zai iya faruwa a Nigeria a wannan lokaci.

Kwatsam a ranar 15 ga watan Janairu, 1966, matasan sojoji wadanda mafiya yawan su yan Kabilar Igbo ne karkashin jagorancin Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu da Emmanuel Ifeajuna suka kaddamar da Juyin Mulki a biranen Lagos, Ibadan, da kuma Kaduna, wanda yayi sanadiyyar rasuwar manyan yan siyasa, manyan ma’aikatan Gwamnati, da kuma manyan sojoji wanda mafiya yawan su yan Arewacin Nigeria ne.

A Lagos, Major Emmanuel Ifeajuna ya jagoranci Juyin Mulkin wanda a cikin sa suka kashe Shugaban Gwamnatin Nigeria Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa tare da Ministan Kudi Chief Festus Okotie-Eboh. A birnin Ibadan kuma, sojojin sun kashe Shugaban Gwamnatin Lardin Yamma Chief Samuel Akintola. A birnin Kaduna cibiyar Mulkin Lardin Arewa, Major Chukwuma Nzeogwu da kansa ya kashe Shugaban Gwamnatin Lardin Arewa Sir Ahmadu Bello tare da matarsa.

Saboda haka, a takaice, wannan Juyin Mulki na ranar 15 ga watan Janairun shekarar 1966 shine ya kawo karshen Jamhuriyar Nigeria ta Farko wadda tayi tsayin shekaru shida (1960-1966). Kuma hakan yayi sanadiyyar kawo Mulkin Soja wanda Major-General Aguiyi-Ironsi ya karbi jagorancin Mulkin Nigeria a matsayin sabon Shugaban Gwamnatin Nigeria amma na Mulkin Soja.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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