HausaTarihin Nigeria

KUNDIN TSARIN MULKI A NIGERIA KAFIN YANCIN KAI

Tutar Nigeria a zamanin mulkin mallaka 1914-1959 Source: creativecommons.org

Tarihin Kundin tsarin mulki a Nigeria lokacin mulkin mallaka ko kafin a samu yancin kai, ya kasance wani ci gaba da aka samu wanda ya samar da kundin tsarin mulki a Nigeria na farko a shekarar 1922. Sannan kuma aka dinga samun gyare-gyare da kuma sabuntawa har ta kai an samar da kundin tsarin mulki har guda hudu daga 1922 zuwa 1954.

Don haka ne masana tarihi a Nigeria suka bayyana Tarihin kundin tsarin mulki a kafin yancin kai a matsayin zamani mai hawa hudu wanda a cikin sa aka samar da Kundin tsarin mulki guda hudu daya bayan daya.

Asali

Tarihin Kundin tsarin mulki a Nigeria kafin yancin kai ya samo asali ne bayan karewar Yakin Duniya na daya, lokacin da aka fara samun bayyanar yan boko a Nigeria. Wadannan yan boko sun yi kira ga Gwamnatin Mulkin Mallaka akan cewa lallai ne a samu canji a tsarin gwamnati ta yadda yan Nigeria za su samu damar shiga a dama da su. Don haka suka bukaci a samar da kundin tsarin mulki wanda zai shigar da yan Nigeria cikin tsarin gudanarwa ko kuma a yi duba tare da gyara dokokin da ake tafiya akan su.

Kafin yan Nigeria su fara karajin neman chanjin dokokin da ake tafiya akan su, dokokin sun kasance tun na lokacin da Gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta Ingila ta ayyana Lagos a matsayin wani yanki karkashin mulkin mallakar Ingila a shekarar 1861. Wasu dokokin kuma sun kasance tun na lokacin da aka hade Arewaci da Kudancin Nigeria a shekarar 1914. A tsarin dokokin, akwai Majalisar Kasa wadda ta kunshi wakilai 36, da kuma Gwamna-Janar wato turance Governor-Generala matsayin shugaba. Wakilai 30 daga ciki sun kasance turawa. Sauran kuma wakilai guda 6 sun kasance yan Nigeria wadanda ake zabar su domin wakiltar yankuna dake bakin teku kamar Lagos, da Calabar.

Saboda haka ne bayan la’akari da kiranye-kiranyen neman gyara, sai Gwamnatin Mulkin Mallaka karkashin Gwamna-Janar Sir Hugh Clifford ta kirkiri Kundin tsarin mulki a shekarar 1922 domin kara bawa yan Nigeria damar a dama da su.

Sir Hugh Clifford wanda wasu suke masa lakabi da “Uban Kundin tsarin mulki a Nigeria”

Kundin Tsarin Mulki Guda Hudu

KUNDIN TSARIN MULKIN 1922

Kundin tsarin mulkin 1922 wanda a turance ake kira da 1922 Constitution ko Clifford Constitution ya kasance kundin tsarin mulki na farko a tarihin Nigeria. Kuma an samar da shine a shekarar 1922 basa amincewar Shugaban Gwamnatin Mulkin Mallaka a Nigeria wato Sir Hugh Clifford.

A cikin Kundin tsarin mulkin na Clifford, an samar da sabuwar Majalisar kasa. Majalisar kasar ta kunshi wakilai 46, wanda daga ciki 27 har da Gwamna-Janar sun kasance wakilai na musamman a turance official members yayin da sauran wakilai 19 suka kasance wanda ba na musamman ba unofficial members. Haka kuma 15 daga cikin wakilai wanda ba na musamman ba sun kasance ana nada su ne, wanda kuma dole ne 10 daga ciki su kasance yan Nigeria.

Haka kuma, Kundin tsarin mulkin Clifford ya bada damar kafa kungiyoyi da jam’iyyu, wanda hakan kuma zamu iya cewa ya taimaka wajen kafa tushen fafutukar neman yancin a kai a Nigeria wato a turance Nigerian nationalism.

KUNDIN TSARIN MULKIN 1946

Kundin tsarin mulkin 1946 wanda a turance ake kira da 1946 Constitution ko Richards Constitution of 1946, ya kasance kundin tsarin mulki na biyu a tarihin Nigeria kafin samun yancin kai.

Ya kasance lokacin da sabon Gwamna-Janar na mulkin mallaka Sir Arthur Richards ya kama aiki a Nigeria a shekarar 1943, ya bayyana bukatar sake samar kundin tsarin mulkin da ake amfani da shi a Nigeria, bayan ya bayyana Kundin tsarin mulkin Clifford a matsayin wanda bai dace da Nigeria ba. Don haka ne a shekarar 1946 ya samar da sabon kundin tsarin mulki a bisa manufofi guda uku kamar haka :

  • Samar da hadin kan Nigeria
  • Bawa kowa hakkin bisa girmama kabilar sa.
  • Da kuma kara fadada damammaki ga yan kasa domin a dama da su

Saboda haka ne, a bisa wadannan manufofi guda 3 ne, aka sake gyara Majalisar dokokin Nigeria wadda aka mayar da ita guda daya wadda zata kunshi wakilai masu yin doka daga duk fadin Nigeria.

Haka kuma, Kundin tsarin mulkin Richards ya samar da tsarin Larduna wato a turance Regionalization wanda ya bada damar raba Nigeria zuwa Larduna 3 wato Regions a turance A tsarin Arewacin Nigeria a bar shi a matsayin Lardin Arewa, yayin da Kudancin Nigeria aka raba shi zuwa Lardin Yamma, da kuma Lardin Gabas. Sannan kuma, a kokarin Kundin tsarin mulkin Richards din na kara bawa yankunan Nigeria dama, an kirkiri Majalisun dokokin Larduna. A cikin sabon tsarin, an samar da tsarin Majalisu biyu wato a turance bicameral legislature a Lardin Arewa wato Majalisar Sarakuna (House of Chiefs) da kuma Majalisar Wakilai (House of Assembly). A Lardin Yamma da kuma Lardin Gabas, tsarin ya samar da Majalisu guda daya (unicameral legislature) ga kowanne Lardi daga cikin su.

Sai dai kuma ya kamata mu sani cewa, wadannan Majalisun Dokokin na Larduna ba su da ikon yin doka, an kirkire su ne kawai don su bada shawarwari da kuma kasancewa a matsayin wani gwadabe tsakanin ma’aikatun gwamnati na N.A. (Native Authority) da kuma Majalisar Kasa dake Lagos.

A takaice, Kundin tsarin mulkin na Richards ya kara bawa yan Nigeria damar su shiga a dama da su.

KUNDIN TSARIN MULKIN 1951

Kundin tsarin mulkin 1951 wanda a turance aka sani da 1951 Constitution ko MacPherson Constitution of 1951 Kundin tsarin mulki ne wanda Gwamna-Janar na Mulkin Mallaka a Nigeria Sir John MacPherson ya samar.

Kafin kirkirar Kundin tsarin mulkin na 1951, an samu kokeke daga gurin manyan yan siyasa akan a gyra Kundin tsarin mulkin 1946 wanda ake amfani da shi. Domin kuwa a cewar yan siyasar akwai bukatar kara fadada harkokin siyasa da na zabe. Don haka ne a bisa amincewa da bukatun kawo gyra, Gwamna-Janar Sir John MacPherson ya samar da sabon Kundin tsarin mulki wanda ya kasance wani ci gaba na Kundin tsarin mulkin 1946.

A karkashin sabon Kundin tsarin mulkin na 1951, an samar da sabuwar Majalisar Wakilai wadda ta kunshi shugaba, wakilai masu ruwa da tsaki na musamman wato a turance ex-officio, da kuma zababbun wakilai guda 136 daga sassan Nigeria. Daga cikin zababbun wakilan, guda 68 sun fito ne daga Lardin Arewa, guda 37 daga Lardin Yamma, sai kuma guda 34 daga Lardin Gabas. Haka kuma, Majalisun Dokokin Larduna an basu ikon yin dokoki akan wasu kebantattun abubuwa wanda suke bukatar sahalewar Gwamna-Janar kafin su zama dokoki.

A bangaren zartarwa, Kundin tsarin mulkin 1951 ya samar da Majalisar Zartarwa ta kasa wadda a turance ake kira da Executive Council ko Council of Ministers. Ita wannan Majalisa ta Zartarwa wadda aka dora mata alhakin gudanar da manufofin gwamnati ta kunshi Gwamna-Janar a matsayin shugaba, sai nadaddun ministoci guda 12, sai kuma wakilai na musamman guda shida. Ana nada Ministocin ne daga cikin zababbun wakilan da Majalisun Larduna suka zaba domin yin wakilci a Majalisar Wakilai ta Kasa.

A bangaren zabe kuma, Kundin tsarin mulkin 1951, ya inganta bangaren ta hanyar fadada shi. A cikin tsarin, a Lardin Arewa sakamakon karancin karatun boko, an tsare hanyar zaben ta kasance ta wakilci wato a turance electoral college. A Lardunan Yamma kuma da na Gabas, hanyar zaben ta kasance ta kai tsaye wato a turance direct election. A tsarin zaben kuma, ana bukatar mutum ya kasance namiji wanda ya balaga kuma ya biya dukkan harajin da ya kamata ace ya biya.

To shima dai Kundin tsarin mulkin 1951 din an caccake shi akan wasu tsare-tsaren sa da suke hana ruwa gudu. A misali, akwai baraka tsakanin Larduna da kuma Gwamnatin kasa musamman a wajen biyayya da ministoci ya kamata suyi ga Gwamnatin kasa. Domin a wasu abubuwan, ministocin sukan fi yiwa Larduna da suka fito biyayya akan umarnin Gwamnatin kasa dake Lagos, wanda hakan kuma ya janyo matsaloli wajen gudanar da manufofin Gwamnatin kasa baki daya.

KUNDIN TSARIN MULKIN 1954

Kundin tsarin mulkin 1954 wanda kuma ake kira da Kundin tsarin mulkin Lyttleton wato a turance Lyttleton Constitution, ya kasance na karshe a tarihin Kundin tsarin mulki a Nigeria kafin mulkin kai.

A cikin tanadin Kundin tsarin mulkin na 1951, Nigeria ta koma kan tsarin tarayya wato Federalism a turance, wanda kunshi Larduna guda 3 na Arewa, Yamma, Gabas, Yankin Kudancin Cameroon, da kuma Lagos a matsayin babban birnin Tarayya.

A bangaren Majalisar Dokoki, Kundin tsarin mulkin 1954 ya kara fadada Majalisar Wakilai ta kasa daga wakilai 136 zuwa 184, wanda daga ciki 94 sun fito ne daga Lardin Arewa, 42 daga Lardin Yamma, 42 daga Lardin Gabas, 6 daga Yankin Kudancin Cameroon, sannan kuma guda 2 daga Yankin babban birnin Tarayya na Lagos. Haka kuma an warewa Majalisar Dokoki ta kasa hurumin yin dokokin ta. Haka zalika, zaben yan Majalisun Wakilai na kasa ya bar hannun ikon Larduna ya koma mai zaman kansa.

A bangaren Majalisar Zartarwa ta kasa, Kundin tsarin mulkin na 1954 ya bayar da damar nada yan Nigeria guda goma a matsayin ministoci masu hurumin aiki wato a turance ministers with portfolio.

A Larduna kuma, Kundin tsarin mulkin na 1954 ya bada damar nada Shugabannin Larduna wato a turance Regional Premiers tare da ministocin Lardi a turance Regional ministers wanda za su kasance shugabannin zartarwa wato a turance Premiers a Lardunan su. Wadanda aka nada sune Sir Ahmadu Bello Shugaban Jam’iyyar NPC a matsayin Shugaban Lardin Arewa, Chief Obafemi Awolowo a matsayin Shugaban Lardin Yamma, sai kuma Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe a matsayin Shugaban Lardin Gabas. Haka kuma an yarjewa Lardunan da su kirkiri ma’aikatun gwamnatin wato turance public service da kuma bangaren shari’a wato judiciary a turance.

A kuma cikin shekarar 1957, a lokacin tarurrukan neman yancin kan Nigeria, a sake gyara Kundin tsarin mulkin 1954 inda aka kirkiro ofis din Fara Minista wato a turance Prime Minister wanda zai zama Shuhaban Gudanarwar Kasa. Wanda aka nada kuma shine Mataimakin Shugaban Jam’iyyar NPC wato Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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