HausaTarihin Africa

NEMAN YANCIN AFRICA

Kenneth Kaunda kenan yayin wani taron Juyin-Juya Hali a Rhodesia (Zambia) a shekarar 1960. Source : commons.m.wikimedia.org

Neman Yancin Africa wanda a turance ake kira da African nationalism wani lokaci ne da yan Africa suka dinga yin gwagarmaya ko fafutuka domin yantar da kasashen su daga mulkin mallaka na Turawa.

Neman yancin Africa ya fara ne tun daga misalin karshen karni na 19 zuwa cikin karni 20. Bayan Yakin Duniya na biyu kuma a shekarar 1945 zuwa shekarun 1960 sai Gwagwarmayar neman yancin ta bunkasa har ta kai kusan daukacin kasashen Africa sun sami yancin kan su.

Asali

Tunanin neman yancin Africa tare da hadin kan Africa ya samo asali a wajejen tsakiyar karni na 19 lokacin da wasu yan Africa suka fara ganin cewa akwai bukatar kafa wani tsari da zai kawo hadin kai tare da yancin Africa.

To amma Gwagwarmaya mai tsari domin neman yanci tare da hadin kan Africa ta fara ne a karshen karni na 19 zuwa farkon karni na 20 lokacin da aka kafa wata kungiyar fafutukar hadin kai tare da taimakon juna ta Africa wato a turance Pan-Africanism. Wannan fafutuka ta Pan-Africanism an fara ta ne a Amurka da Yankin Caribbean lokacin da bakaken fata mazauna can suka fara tunanin tabbatar da hadin kai tare da yancin tushen su, wato Africa.

Manyan yan gwagwarmayar a wannan Kungiya ta Pan-Africanism kamar su W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, George Padmore, da sauran su, sun yi kokari matuka wajen wayar da kan Yan Africa akan hadin kai tare da kare hakkin su a duk fadin duniya. Kokarin su ne ma ya bada damar yin tarurruka (conferences) masu yawa tsakanin shekarar 1900 zuwa 1945 domin samar da yanci tare da hadin kan Africa. A misali, a watan July ns shekarar 1900, kungiyar Pan-Africanism a taron ta na farko da ta yi a birnin London, yan kungiyar sun bayyana rashin amincewar su akan turawa yan kama guri zauna a kasashen South Africa da Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).

Gwagwarmayar neman yanci ta fara ne a nahiyar Africa lokacin da aka fara samun bayyanar yan boko a nahiyar musamman wadanda suka je suka yi karatu a Amurka da kuma nahiyar Turai. Domin kuwa wasu daga cikin wadannan yan Africa da suka je suka yi karatu sun sami damar haduwa tare da yin aiki da wasu daga cikin yan gwagwarmayar Pan-Africanism kamar irin su W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, da sauran su, wanda hakan kuma ya canja tunanin wasu da dama daga cikin su zuwa gwagwarmayar hada kai tare da neman yancin Africa.

Farawar Neman Yancin Africa

1920-1945

Kamar yadda muka fada, bayan Yakin Duniya na daya a shekarar 1918, bakaken fata yan Africa wanda suka tasirantu da manufofin gwagwarmaya na yan Pan-Africanism da suka je karatu Amurka da nahiyar Turai sun fara dawowa gida inda suka hadu da yan uwan su yan boko wanda suka yi karatu. Don haka ne suka fara kafa kungiyoyin gwagwarmaya a wajejen farkon shekarun 1920.

Da farko gwagwarmayar neman yancin Africa ta fara tare da mayar da hankali akan samun yancin shiga gwamnati domin damawa da yan Africa akan yadda ake mulkar su, da kuma samun yancin kafa kungiyoyin taimakon kai-da-kai. A hankali, wannan bukata ta samun damar shiga cikin mulki da yan Africa suka fara fafutuka akai ta fara samun gindin zama da nasarori wanda ya tilasta gwamnatocin mulkin mallaka (Colonial governments) a gurare da dama a Africa wajen yin canje-canje wanda suka bawa yan Africa damar shiga a dama da su a cikin yadda ake mulkar su. A misali, a Nigeria wadda take karkashin mulkin mallakar Ingila, gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta samar da kundin tsarin mulki a shekarar 1922 wanda ya bada damar zabar wasu yan kasa a matsayin masu yin doka. Haka kuma, kundin tsarin mulkin ya bada damar kafa kungiyoyi ciki har da na siyasa.

Gwagwarmayar hadin kai tare da neman yancin kan Africa ya kara karfafa bayan manyan yan gwagwarmayar Africa sun dauki ragamar yakar mulkin mallaka. Wadannan yan gwagwarmaya wanda suka hada da mutane kamar su Kwame Nkrumah na kasar Ghana, Jomo Kenyatta na Kenya, Nnamdi Azikiwe na Nigeria, Wallace Johnson na Sierra Leone, Leopold Sedar Sangor na Senegal, da sauran su, sun yi kokari wajen karfafar mutanen kasar su wajen hadin kai da aiki tare domin samun yancin kan Africa.

1945-1960

Gwagwarmayar neman yancin kan Africa ta dauki sabon salon gwagwarmaya daga neman yancin shiga cikin sha’anin gwamnati zuwa neman yancin kan Africa tun bayan Yakin Duniya na biyu a shekarar 1945. Wannan canza salo kuwa ya faru ne sakamakon Yakin Duniya na biyun ya canza tunanin yan Africa wajen gwagwarmaya da neman yanci. A misali, kasashen mulkin mallaka sun yi amfani da yan Africa masu yawa a matsayin sojoji a Yakin Duniya na biyu. Wadannan yan Africa wadanda suka yi aiki a matsayin sojoji sun sami damar yawo a duniya inda suka ga yadda yadda ake gwagwarmayar neman yanci musamman a kasashen Asia irin su India. Saboda haka, lokacin da suka dawo, sai suma suka shiga tare da karfafar fafutukar neman yancin Africa da irin ilmin da suka samu a yawon da suka yi.

Yan gwagwarmayar neman yancin kan Africa sun ci gaba da kokarin su ta hanyar kafa jam’iyyun siyasa da kuma kungiyoyin gwagwarmaya domin yakar mulkin mallaka a duk fadin nahiyar Africa. A wasu yankunan, yan gwagwarmayar sun yi aiki cikin yanayin zaman lafiya, yayin da a wasu yankunan na Africa yan gwagwarmayar sun fuskanci wahala wadda har ta kai wasu sun rasa rayukan su. A misali, cikin kasashen da suke karkashin ikon Ingila, yan gwagwarmayar sun fuskanci karancin matsaloli akan yan gwagwarmayar da suke a kasashe karkashin ikon Faransa (France) ko Portugal.

A takaice, a shekarar 1957, kasar Ghana ta bude kofar yanci ga sauran kasashen Africa bayan da ta samu yancin kan ta. Daga wannan shekara ta 1957 zuwa shekarun 1960, 1970, har ma zuwa shekarun 1980 kasashen Africa daban-daban sun samu yancin kan su daga mulkin mallakar turawa wato a turance colonialism.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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