HausaTarihin Duniya

TARIHIN GAGARUMIN MATSIN TATTALIN ARZIKI

Jerin marasa aikin yi suna jiran a basu kyautar abinci a birnin Chicago. Source : commons.m.wikimedia.org

A bisa tarihi, Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arziki wanda a turance ake kira da ‘Great Depression‘ wani lalacewar tattalin arziki ne da aka yi wanda ta shafi duniya daga tsakanin shekarun 1929 zuwa 1939.

Tarihi ya nuna cewa a lokacin Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin, duniya ta fuskanci tsananin matsin rayuwa musamman a shekarun 1930, wanda ya janyo faduwar ma’aunin tattalin arziki na GDP (Gross Domestic Products) a kasashe masu yawa. Haka kuma Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin ya janyo rushewar guraren ayyuka da dama wanda hakan ta haifar da rashin aikin yi ga miliyoyin mutane.

To amma bayan kasashen duniya sun dukufa wajen shawo kan Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin, an sami saukin matsalar daidai lokacin da Yakin Duniya na biyu ya barke a shekarar 1939.

Asalin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin

Bayan Yakin Duniya na daya da kuma shigowar shekarun 1920, tattalin arziki a duniya ya fara farfadowa bayan wahalar da ya fuskanta a Yakin Duniyar na daya. Kasashen duniya musamman manyan kasashe irin su Amurka, Ingila, da France sun dukufa wajen farfado da tattalin Arzikin su daga mashashshara. To amma kuma manyan kasashe irin su Ingila da France sun dogare ne da karbar bashi daga gurin Amurka domin farfado da tattalin arzikin nasu. Sannan kuma wajen biyan bashin, sun dogara ne da kudin da suka tilasta kasar Germany da kawayenta su dinga biyan su sakamakon haddasa Yakin Duniya na daya. Wannan yanayi kuma sai ya jefa kasar Germany cikin rushewar tattalin arziki wanda ya janyo ta kasa ci gaba da biyan kudin. Don haka ne suma kasashen irin su Ingila da France suka kasa ci gaba da biyan Amurka bashin da suka ci daga gurin ta.

Daga shekarar 1926 zuwa 1928, matsin tattalin arziki ya fara bayyana a kasashe musamman a Amurka da nahiyar Turai. Rushewar guraren aiki da masana’antu sai karuwa yake. Haka kuma, darajar kudi sai kara rushewa take yi.

Farawar Matsin Tattalin Arzikin

Matsalolin tattalin arziki a duniya sun ci gaba da bayyana wanda hakan ya fara alamta shigar tattalin arzikin duniya wani matsanancin hali.

To amma kamar yadda masana tarihi suka tabbatar, Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin Duniya ya barke ne lokacin da aka samu rushewar kudade da hannun jari a watan October na shekarar 1929 a Kasuwar Hannun Jari dake birnin New York a kasar Amurka wanda a turance ake kira da New York Stock Exchange Crash of 1929. Wannan rushewar Kasuwar Hannun Jarin ta New York ta samo asali ne daga lokacin da farashin hannun jari ya karye bayan da masu saka hannun jarin suka dinga karyar da farashin su domin su biya basukan da bankuna suke bin su.

Zuwa shekarar 1930, Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arziki ya fara bazuwa daga kasar Amurka zuwa kasashen Turai dama sauran sassan duniya.

AMURKA

A kasar Amurka, tattalin arziki ya shiga wani yanayi marar dadi wanda ya janyo rufewar ma’aikatu da masana’antu. Misali, daga 1930 zuwa 1932, an rufe guraren ayyukan yi akalla guda dubu uku. Hakan kuma ya janyo rashin ayyukan yi har takai ta kawo mai gida baya iya ciyar da iyalan sa.

To amma a shekarar 1932, an zabi sabuwar gwamnati a kasar ta Amurka. Wanda aka zaba kuwa shine Franklin Roosevelt. Shugaba Roosevelt yazo da wasu sabbin tsare-tsaren farfado da tattalin arziki wanda a turance aka kira da ‘New Deal’. Wadannan sabbin tsare-tsare sun kunshi manufofi guda 3 kamar haka :

  • Kawar da manyan matsalolin mutane kamar su abinci, da kuma muhalli.
  • Samar da sabbin dokoki da hanyoyi wadanda za su farfado da harkar noma da kuma kasuwanci.
  • Da kuma samar da hanyoyi na gaggawa wadanda za su fuskanci matsalolin da Amurka take ciki a lokacin.

Daga shekarar 1932 zuwa 1934, shugaba Franklin Roosevelt ya yi kokarin samar da dokoki da tsare-tsaren tattalin arziki wadanda za su karfafa tattalin arzikin Amurka. Haka kuma gwamnati ta ci gaba da kokari wajen shawo kan Matsin Tattalin Arzikin har zuwa shekarar 1939 lokacin da abubuwa suka fara daidaituwa.

NAHIYAR TURAI

Bayan Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin ya fara a kasar Amurka, sai kuma ya yadu zuwa nahiyar Turai. Hakan kuwa ya tabbata ne sakamakon rage saka hannun jari da kuma bada rance da Amurka ta daina bawa kasashen na Turai.

A nahiyar Turai, yanayin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin ya kasance mai tsanani kamar na kasar Amurka. Kasashen Turai irin su Ingila, France, Germany, da kuma Poland sun fi kowa tabuwa. A shekarun 1930, yanayin rushewar guraren ayyuka kamar masana’antu da bankuna ya janyo rasa aiki ga mutane masu yawa, wanda kuma hakan ya janyo wahalar rayuwa. A misali, zuwa shekarar 1932, akalla mutane miliyan uku sun rasa ayyukan yi a kasar Ingila.

SAURAN YANKUNAN DUNIYA

A sauran yankunan duniya ma, Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin ya shafe su, wanda ya janyo rushewar tattalin arzikin kasashe masu tasowa musamman a nahiyoyin kudancin Amurka, Asia, da kuma Africa. A misali, kasashe masu tasowa irin su Brazil sun sha wahalar Matsin Tattalin Arzikin. Domin kuwa mafi yawancin wadanda suka mallaki bankuna da kuma saka hannun jari duk yan kasashen waje ne wanda suka zo daga kasar Amurka da nahiyar Turai.

Karshen Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin

Kafin Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin Duniya na shekarun 1930 yazo karshe, kasashen duniya da dama sun dukufa kwarai da gaske wajen kawo karshen Matsalar. Shugabanni irin su Franklin Roosevelt sun yi kokari wajen samar da tsare-tsaren farfadowar tattalin arzikin kasashen su, dama duniya baki daya.

To amma duk da haka, Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin Duniya na shekarun 1930 yazo karshe ne lokacin da Yakin Duniya na biyu ya barke a shekarar 1939.

KARKAREWA

Gagarumin Matsin Tattalin Arzikin Duniya na shekarun 1930 ya kasance mafi munin matsanancin yanayin tattalin arziki a karni na 20, wanda ya janyo tagayyarar kasashen duniya da al’ummar su.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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