HausaTarihin Turai

TARIHIN JUYIN-JUYA HALIN KASAR RUSSIA

Vladimir Lenin yana yiwa jama’a jawabi. Source : commons.m.wikimedia. org

Juyin-Juya Halin kasar Russia wasu Juyin-Juya hali ne guda biyu da aka samu a shekarar 1917 wanda ya kawo karshen mulkin sarauta tare da kafa mulkin gurguzu (communism). Tarihi ya tabbatar cewa Kafin Juyin-Juya Hali a Russia, kasar ta kasance a yanayin koma baya ta fannonin rayuwa wanda ya janyo zanga-zanga da kokarin kawo chanji. To amma chanji bai samu ba sai wajejen karshen Yakin Duniya na biyu lokacin da yanayin neman chanjin ya dau zafi.

Tarihi ya tabbatar cewa a watan February na shekarar 1917, al’ummar kasar Russia suka yi fito na fito da gwamnati har sai da suka tunbuke Sarki Nicholas II, kuma suka kafa gwamnati wadda zata tabbatar da mulki a hannun yan kasa. To amma bayan wani lokaci, a watan October aka sake gudanar da wani Juyin-Juya Halin karkashin gungun wasu yan gurguzu (communists) wanda ake kira da ‘Bolsheviks’.

Da wannan Juyin-Juya Hali ne, kasar Russia ta chanja daga mulkin sarakuna zuwa mulkin yan kasa mai salon mulkin gurguzu.

Asalin Juyin-Juya Halin Kasar Russia

Kafin shekarar 1914 lokacin da Yakin Duniya na daya ya barke, kasar Russia wadda take karkashin mulkin sarauta ta kasance babbar kasa. Kasar ta Russia daga yamma ta fara daga tsakiyar nahiyar Turai har zuwa Tekun Pacific a Gabas. A takaice, kasar Russia ta kasance kasa mafi girma fadin kasa a duniya wadda ta kunshi kasashen da a yanzu ake kira da Ukraine, Finland, Belarus, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, da kuma wani bangare na kasar Poland ta yanzu. A nahiyar Asia kuwa ta kunshi kasashen Georgia, Armenia, da Azerbaijan na yanzu.

A bangaren tattalin arziki kuma, kafin faruwar Juyin-Juya Halin, kasar Russia ta kasance kasar da ta dogara da noma, kuma koma baya a bangaren ci gaban masana’antu. Don haka ne kasar take da yawan takaici.

A tsarin mulki kuma, kasar Russia kafin 1917, ta kasance kasa wadda take karkashin mulkin sarakuna. Don haka mutanen kasar suna da karancin yanci musamman na fadin albarkacin baki. Don haka ne a wajejen shekarar 1905 bayan Russia ta yi rashin nasara a yakin da suka buga ita da Japan wato a turance Russo-Japanese War, sai wannan rashin nasarar ya zama abin kunya ga, Russia har ta kai yan kasa suka fara nuna gajiyawar su game da yadda ake mulkar su. A birane ma’aikata musamman na masana’antu suka fara yin zanga-zanga da yajin aiki akan neman karin albashi da kyautata yanayin aiki, yayin da a kauyuka manoma suka fara kin biyan kudin gona ga wakilan Sarki Nicholas II.

A sannu a sannu wannan juya-juya ta nuna rashin amincewa ga masarauta a Russia, ya janyo wani kokarin juyin mulki da dandazon fusatattun kungiyoyin ma’aikata, da na masu neman kawo chanji suka so su yi wa Sarkin Russia a shekarar 1905, amma ba’a sami nasara ba. Don haka ne, don gudun hambarar da mulkin sa, Sarki Nicholas II ya kafa Majalisar dokoki wadda ake kira da ‘Duma’ domin ta dunga yi wa yan kasa dokoki. Haka kuma ya samar da wasu tsare-tsare wanda za su bawa yan kasa damar shiga a dama da su a wasu abubuwan. To amma kash, wannan abu shine bawa yan kasa damar kafa kungiyoyin juyin-juya hali a sirrance wanda suka hadu suka tunbuke mulkin Saraki Nicholas a shekarar 1917.

Daga shekarar 1905, yanayin tashin tashina na nuna kin gwamnati da neman chanji ya ci gaba har zuwa lokacin da Yakin Duniya na daya ya barke a shekarar 1914. Saboda haka ne, fafutukar kawo chanji a Russia ta dan yi sanyi, sakamakon shigar kasar Russia Yakin Duniya na biyun.

Ko da yake Russia ta shiga Yakin Duniya na biyu a bangaren masu nasara wato kasashen Ingila, Faransa, da Amurka. To amma ita yanayin bai yi mata dadi ba, domin daga shekarar 1914 zuwa 1916, ta hadu da rashin nasarori daban-daban a Yakin Duniyar, sakamakon rashin kayan yaki masu kyau da sojojin ta suke da shi. Wannan rashin nasarar ya janyo wa Russia asarar sojoji akall miliyan daya da rabi, sannan kuma an raunata akalla sojoji miliyan biyar. A cikin yankin kasar ta kuma, gine-gine da kayan amfanin gona sun salwanta wanda ya janyo yan gudun hiijira kusan mutum miliyan uku.

Saboda haka, wannan yanayi marar dadi da yake faruwa ga Russia sakamakon shigar ta Yakin Duniya na daya, ya janyo yan kasa sun zargi tare da dora alhakin duk matsalolin ga gwamnatin Masarautar Russia karkashin Sarki Nicholas II. Don haka ne a wajejen karshen shekarar 1916, guguwar Juyin-Juya Hali a kasar Russia ta fara kadawa yayin da yan kasa suka fara zanga-zanga na nuna kin jinin gwamnati.

Farawar Juyin-Juya Halin

Kamar yadda ya tabbata a tarihi, Juyin-Juya Halin kasar Russia ya kasance guda biyu wadanda suka faru a watannin February da October, to amma aka hade su guri guda ake kiran su a dunkule da Juyin-Juya Halin kasar Russia sakamakon faruwar su a shekara guda kuma da manufar kawo chanji.

JUYIN-JUYA HALI NA WATAN FEBRUARY

Juyin-Juya Hali na watan February ya kasance na farko da ya samu nasarar hambarar da gwamnati a kasar Russia.

A ranar 22 ga February, na shekarar 1917, daruruwan yan kasa wanda mafi yawancin ma’aikata ne suka fito zanga-zanga a birnin Petrograd, a babban birnin Russia. Masu zanga-zangar sun fito suna rera wakar neman kyautata rayuwa da kuma samun dimokaradiyya. A nata bangaren, gwamnatin Masarautar Russia sai ita kuma ta saka dokar hana zirga-zirga, wanda ya tilastawa masu zanga-zangar tarwatsewa.

To amma, a ranar 26 ga February, sai masu zanga-zangar suka sake dawowa tare da mamaye titunan birnin Petrograd. Don haka, a kokarin shawo kan lamarin sai Sarki Nicholas II ya umarci sojoji da su kawo karshen fito na fito da yan kasar suke so su yi da gwamnati. Amma maimakon sojojin suyi aikin da gwamnati ta saka su, sai suka bijire tare da taimakawa masu zanga-zangar.

Saboda haka, daga karshe a ranar 12 ga March, sai wannan masu zanga-zangar tare da taimakon sojoji suka dangana izuwa ginin Majalisar Dokokin Russia tare da ayyana sabuwar gwamnati.

Ana cikin wannan hali ne, sai manyan sojojin Russia karkashin jagorancin Babban Hafsan Sojojin kasar mai suna Nikolai Ruzsky, suka bawa Sarki Nicholas II shawarar sauka daga mulki. Don haka, gwamnatin Masarautar Russia karkashin Sarki Nicholas II bayan ta fahimci cewar a yanzu bata da wani iko, musamman sakamakon rasa biyayya daga gurin rundunar sojojin kasar, sai ta yi nazari akana shawarar. A ranar 15th ga March, Sarki Nicholas II ya rubuta takardar yin murabus, wanda hakan ya janyo rushewar mulkin sarakuna wanda aka shafe fiye da shekaru 200 ana yi a kasar ta Russia.

Hoton Sarki Nicholas II. Source : commons.m.wikimedia. org

Bayan murabus din Sarki Nicholas II, sai kuma Gwamnati wadda zata tsara mulkin yan kasa (Provisional Government) ta fara aiki a ranar 16 ga March, 1917. To amma bayan wani dan lokaci sai gwamnati ta rabu gida biyu a kasar ta Russia. Gwamnati ta farko ita ce ta tsara mulkin yan kasa wato ‘Provisional Government’ wadda mafi yawancin jagororin ta sun fito ne daga cikin manyan masu kudi da manyan sojoji. Sai kuma gwamnati ta biyu wadda ake kira da Petrograd Soviet wadda ita kuma ta kunshi mutane da suka fito daga cikin ma’aikata da kuma masu ra’ayin rikau wato ‘radicals’ a turance.

Gwamnatin tsara mulkin yan kasa ta Provisional Government karkashin jagorancin Alexander Kerensky ta yi kokarin kawo gyare-gyare tare da tabbatar da nasarar Russia a Yakin Duniya na daya, to amma abin ya ta’azzara.

Saboda haka wannan dalili da kuma adawa da yada farfaganda daga Petrograd Soviet wanda suke ikirarin su ma gwamnati, sai ya janyo wa gwamntin bakin jini. Wannan janyo yan kasa suka fara karajin neman wani chanjin.

JUYIN-JUYA HALIN WATAN OCTOBER

Adawa da gwamnatin kafa mulkin yan kasa ta Provisional Government ya dau zafi a wajejen watan September, wanda hakan ya fara nuna alamun faruwar wani Juyin-Juya Halin. To amma wannan karajin neman chanjin da kuma nuna adawa ga gwamnati ya ta’azzara sakamakon aikin wata kungiyar yan ra’ayin rikau ta gurguzu (communist radicals) da ake kira da ‘Bolsheviks’, karkashin jagorancin Vladimir Lenin da kuma Leon Trotsky, wadanda suke ganin akwai bukatar kafa mulkin gurguzu wato (communism) a Russia.

Ta karkashin kasa, Kungiyar yan gurguzu ta Bolsheviks sun kafa wata rundunar soja wadda suka sakawa suna jajayen sojoji (Red Armies), domin tunbuke gwamnati mai ci a Russia tare da kafa mulkin gurguzu. Saboda haka, zuwa ranar 16 ga October, 1917, Kungiyar Bolsheviks karkashin jagorancin Vladimir Lenin sun gama shiryawa tsaf wajen kwace mulki.

A ranar 6 ga November, bayan wata yar rigima tsakanin sojojin gwamnati da na yan Juyin-Juya Hali, sai Jajayen Sojoji karkashin Leon Trotsky suka afka cikin fadar Sanyi (Winter Palace) a birnin Petrograd, kuma suka hambarar da gwamnati tare da kame manyan ministoci da kuma sauran manyan gwamnati.

Vladimir Lenin yana yiwa jama’a jawabi

Bayan Juyin-Juya Halin Kasar Russia

Bayan da Kungiyar yan Gurguzu ta Bolsheviks suka hambarar da gwamnati a Russia, sai kuma suka ayyana kasar Russia a matsayin kasa wadda zata kasance karkashin mulkin gurguzu, kuma suka nada Vladimir Lenin a matsayin sabon shugaban gwamnatin Russia.

Bayan kama aiki, Vladimir Lenin ya ayyana fitar rasha daga cikin Yakin Duniya na daya, wanda yake ganin Yakin Duniyar wani yaki ne kawai don kare jari-hujja (capitalism). Sannan kuma ya yi kokarin inganta tare gina masana’antu, wanda hakan ya janyo shigar Russia cikin kasashe masu tafiya da zamani.

A bangaren tsare-tsaren kyautatawa mutane kuwa, Gwamnatin Gurguzu ta Russia ta tallafawa yan kasa wajen samun aiki yi a birane. A kauyuka kuwa, Gwamnatin ta rawa talakawa gonaki tare da tallafi domin habaka aikin noma.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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