HausaTarihin Duniya

KUNGIYAR LEAGUE OF NATIONS

Tutar Kungiyar League of Nations wadda bata hukuma ba a shekarar 1939. Author : Martin Grandjaen Source : creativecommons.org

Kungiyar League of Nations wata kungiyar sa kai ce da aka kafa ta cikin 1920, bayan Yakin Duniya na daya, domin ta samar zaman lafiya da tsaro da kuma yanayi mai kyau na fahimtar juna a tsakanin kasashen duniya. Kungiyar ta samo asali ne daga Yarjejeniyar Versailles, musamman kuma wasu shawarwari guda goma sha hudu da Shugaban kasar Amurka Woodrow Wilson ya bayar. A shawarwarin na Shugaba Woodrow Wilson yace tun da dai Yakin Duniya na daya ya kare kuma kasashen duniya musamman manya daga cikin su sun tagayyara sakamakon Yakin, to akwai bukatar a kafa wata kungiya wadda zata kunshi kasashen duniya domin tabbatar da zaman lafiya. To amma abin takaici, kasar Amurka da ta yi kokarin kafa Kungiyar, bata samu damar shiga Kungiyar ba sakamakon kin yarda da Majalisar Dokokin ta tayi.

Kusan gaba dayan shekaru 26 da Kungiyar League of Nations ta shafe, ta kasa samar da zaman lafiya da fahimtar juna tsakanin kasashen duniya. Haka kuwa ta faru ne sakamakon dalilai masu yawa. Misali, daya daga cikin dalilan shine, Kungiyar bata da tsayayyar rundunar soja (standing armed forces) domin karfafar hukuncin da ta zartar. Don haka ne kasashe da dama suka ci gaba cin karen su ba babbaka. Daga bisani Kungiyar ta rushe a shekarar 1946, sakamakon gazawarta na hana faruwar Yakin Duniya na biyu wanda aka yi tsakanin shekarun 1939 zuwa 1945.

Yadda Kungiyar League of Nations ta samo asali

A tarihance, tunani na kafa wata kungiya ko rumfa wadda zata kunshi kasashe a karkashin ta domin samar da zaman lafiya da fahimtar juna ya samo asali ne tun wajejen karshen karni na 18th, lokacin da wani malamin falsafa (philosopher) dan kasar Jamus (Germany) mai suna Immanuel Kant ya rubuta a littafin sa mai suna “Perpetual Peace : A Philosophical Sketch”. To amma fasahar kafa Kungiyar ta fara ne tun kusan farko farkon Yakin Duniya na daya, lokacin da wani kwararren masanin kimiyyar siyasa (political scientist) dan kasar Ingila (Britain) mai suna Goldsworthy L. Dickinson ya rubuta wani tsari a karshen shekarar 1914, wanda zai samar da daidaito da sulhu a tsakanin kasashen duniya.

Kokarin kafa Kungiyar Kasashe ta League of Nations bai tabbata ba har sai zuwa shekarar 1919 lokacin da manyan kasashe da suka samu nasara a Yakin Duniya na daya (Allied Powers) irin su Amurka, Ingila, da Faransa suka samar da dokar kafa Kungiyar a yayin Yarjejeniyar Versailles. Bayan doguwar tattaunawa da yarjejeniya, wakilan kasashe 44 suka sanya hannu akan dokar kafa Kungiyar League of Nations a ranar 25 ga January, 1919. Kuma a ranar 10 ga January, 1920, Kungiyar Kasashe ta League of Nations ta tabbata a matsayin kungiya.

Yadda Kungiyar League of Nations taka

Kungiyar Kasashe ta League of Nations ta kasance kungiyar sa kai, wadda aka kafa ta domin samar da zaman lafiya, tsaro, da kuma fahimtar juna a tsakanin kasashen duniya. Don haka ne wadannan abubuwa suka zama ginshikai wanda ta kafu a kan su :

  1. Samar da zaman lafiya da tabbatar da shi a duniya bisa adalci ga kowa
  2. Samar da hadin kai da fahimtar juna ta fannin diflomassiya tsakanin duniya.
  3. Kawar da kuma hana yaduwar munanan makamai a tsakanin kasashen duniya.
  4. Da kuma tabbatar da ci gaban alakar kasashe ta bangaren musayar al’adu da kuma fasaha.

A bangaren gudanar da , an raba ta zuwa manyan sassan guda uku wanda suka hada da Cibiyar Mulki (Secretariat), Majalisar Manya (Council), da kuma Majalisar kowa da kowa (Assembly)

  1. Cibiyar Mulki ( Secretariat) : Cibiyar Mulki bangare ne na Kungiyar League of Nations wanda take da hakkin kula da kuma gudanar da ayyukan kungiya na yau da gobe, kamar su tsara tare da rubuta abinda za’a tattauna. Cibiyar Mulki ta kasance a birnin Geneva ta kasar Switzerland.
  2. Majalisar Manya (Council) : Majalisar Manya ta kasance bangare da kunshi kasashe hudu a matsayin wakilai na dindindin (permanent members), da kuma wasu kasashe wanda ake zabo su su kasance a Majalisar na tsawon shekaru uku (non permanent members). Hakkin Majalisar Manya shine kula tare da yanke hukunci akan tsaron duniya, da kuma nada Sakataren Kungiya (Secretary General).
  3. Majalisar Kowa da Kowa (Assembly): Majalisar kowa da kowa ta kunshi ko wacce kasa da take a matsayin yar kungiya. Aikin Majalisar Kowa da Kowa shine na kula da al’amuran da suka shafi duniya gaba daya. Kuma Majalisar tana taruwa ne sau daya a kowace shekara, a watan September domin tattaunawa da yanke hukunci. Kuma kowace kasa a Majalisar Kowa da Kowa tana da kuri’a daya ne wajen ra’ayi.

Dalilan da suka janyo rushewar Kungiyar League of Nations

Kungiyar Kasashe ta League of Nations a cikin shekaru ashirin da shida da tayi, ta kasa tabbatar da tsaro da kuma hadin kai a tsakanin kasashen duniya. To amma hakan ta faru ne sakamakon dalilai kamar haka :

Dalili na farko wanda ya fara janyo gazawar Kungiyar League of Nations shine rashin shigar kasar Amurka cikin Kungiyar, wanda ya janyo rauni ga Kungiyar musamman a bangaren tabbatar da tsaro. Ita kuma kasar Amurka bata shiga Kungiyar League of Nations bane sakamakon Majalisar Dokokin Kasar taki sahalewa mata zama yar Kungiya.

Dalili na biyu kuma ya kasance wasu daga cikin dokokin Kungiyar League of Nations suna hana samun matsaya akan lokaci. Misali, a cikin Kundin Dokokin Kungiyar akwai bangaren da ake kira ‘Unanimity Section’ wanda yace babu wani muhimmin hukunci da za’a dauka idan har ba’a samu goyon bayan duk kasashen da suke karkashin Kungiya ba. Saboda, wannan doka a fakaice ta hana daukan muhimman matakai wanda ya kamata ace a dauka.

Dalili na uku shine cewar Kungiyar Kasashe ta League of Nations bata da tsayayyar rundunar soja wadda zata yi amfani da ita domin karfafar hukuncin da tayi. A maimakon samun sojojin kanta, Kungiyar ta dogare ne ga sojojin kasashe da suke karkashin ta, musamman manyan kasashe irin su Ingila, Faransa, Italy, da kuma Japan.

Dalili na hudu kuma na karshe, shine cewar Kungiyar League of Nations ta gaza wajen tsawatarwa da hana wasu kasashe yin dabi’u da za su kawo rigima a duniya. Misali, Kungiyar ta gaza wajen hana kasar Italy ta mamayi kasar Habasha (Ethiopia) a shekarar 1935.

Saboda haka, a sannu a sannu, wadannan dalilai da ma wasu wadan da ba’a ambata ba, suka hadu suka yi Kungiyar League of Nations dabaibayi, wanda ya bada kofa ta barkewar Yakin Duniya na biyu daga shekarar 1939 zuwa 1945. Bayan Yakin Duniya na biyun ne kuma, a shekarar 1946 aka rushe Kungiyar ta League of Nations, aka kuma maye gurbin ta da Kungiyar Kasashe ta United Nations.

Karkarewa

Kamar yadda muka karanta, Kungiyar Kasashe ta League of Nations an kafa ta ne domin samar da zaman lafiya da tsaro a duniya. To amma abin takaici, a tsakanin shekaru 26, Kungiyar ta kasa samar da cikakken tsaro da zaman lafiya wanda ake bukata.

To amma Kungiyar Kasashen akan kanta ta kasance wata babbar nasara. Domin kuwa ta kasance kungiya ta farko da ta hada kasashen duniya daban daban a karkashin ta domin samar da tsaro da hadin kan kasashe a duniya.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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