HausaTarihin Nigeria

TARIHIN JIHADIN FULANI

Taswirar Daular Fulani ta Sokoto a karni na 19. Source : A Public Domain commons.m.wikimedia.org

Jihadin Fulani wani yaki ne a tarihi da wanda a turance ake kira da Fulani Jihad Musulman Fulani suka kaddamar domin jaddada addinin Musulunci da kawar da zalunci a fadin kasar Hausa da sauran yankunan arewacin Nigeria, da kuma wasu yankunan kasar Niger, da Cameroon, karkashin jagorancin Shehu Usman Danfodio daga shekarar 1804 zuwa 1807.

Tarihi yazo cewa Kafin Jihadin Fulani, Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kasance yana yawon wa’azi daga gari zuwa gari, yana kiran mutane zuwa ga koyarwar addinin Musulunci da barin munanan halaye. Haka kuma ya kasance yana kira ga shugabanni musamman na Masarautar su ta Gobir domin su daina shirka da kuma zalunci.

To amma wannan aiki na wa’azi da Shehu Usman Danfodio yake bai yi wa Sarkin Gobir Yumfa dadi ba. Saboda haka Sarki Yumfa ya saka wa Shehu Usman dokoki na kuntatawa wanda zasu saka ya daina wa’azin da yake yi. To amma duk da wannan kuntatawa, Shehu Usman Danfodio bai daina kiran mutane zuwa ga koyarwar addinin Musulunci ba, hasali ma kullum mabiyan sa sai karuwa suke. Da Sarki Yumfa yaga haka, sai ya yi kokarin kashe Shehu Usman Danfodio, amma hakan gagara yiwuwa. Don haka daga karshe Sarki Yumfa ya kori Shehu Usman da duk mabiyan sa daga kasar Gobir.

Wannan kora da kuma tsanani yasa Shehu Usman Danfodio ya bar garin su na Degel dake karkashin ikon Gobir, ya koma zuwa ga wani guri a yamma, da ake kira da Gudu.

A Gudu, Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kafa mazauni tare da mabiyan sa domin samun sauki. To amma duk da haka alamu sun nuna cewa basu tsira ba, domin Sarkin Gobir Yumfa yana shirin kawo musu harin yaki. Don haka ne bayan Shehu Usman Danfodio ya yi la’akari da sharudan yin Jihadi a addinin Musulunci, kuma yaga cewar duk an cika su, sai ya tara mabiyan sa ya kuma basu umarnin shiri domin kaddamar da Jihadi.

A shekarar 1804, Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kaddamar da Yakin Jihadi akan kasar Gobir da ma sauran Masarautun kasar Hausa. Zuwa shekarar 1807, Shehu Usman Danfodio tare da mabiyan sa wanda mafi yawancin su Fulani ne, sun gama mamaye kusan fadin arewacin Nigeria, da kuma wasu yankuna a kasar Niger da Cameroon.

Wannan nasara da Fulani suka samu na yin Jihadin Musulunci, shine ya samar da Daular Fulani ta Sokoto, da kuma kafuwar mulkin Fulani a daukacin Masarautun kasar Hausa.

Asalin yadda Jihadin Fulani ya samo asali

Kafin bayyana Shehu Usman Danfodio, kasar Hausa ta kasance yankin Musulmai tun karni na 14, lokacin da malamai masu yawon wa’azi na kabilar Wangarawa daga Mali suka kawo addinin Musulunci. Wanda aka yi sa’a mafi yawan sarakuna a fadin kasar Hausa suka karbi Addinin, tare da mayar da shi addinin kasa (official religion). A hankali a hankali, addinin Musulunci ya bunkasa har ta kai wasu daga cikin manyan biranen kasar Hausa irin su Kano da Katsina sun zama cibiyoyin nazari da karatar da ilmin addinin Musulunci.

To amma abin takaici, duk wannan ginshiki da sarakunan kasar Hausa suka kafa domin ingantuwar addinin Musulunci ya far rushe a wajejen karshen karni na 17. Haka kuwa ta faru ne sakamakon sake na mike kafa da Masarautun kasar Hausa suka samu dalilin rushewa ko rauni da manyan daulolin yammacin Africa irin su Mali, Songhai, da Bornu suka yi. Saboda wannan dama ta shagaltar da sarakunan kasar Hausa zuwa ga shirka, zalunci, cin hanci, da kuma yake-yaken neman suna.

Masana tarihin kasar Hausa sun tabbatar da cewa kasar Hausa ta kwashe kimanin fiye da shekaru dari a cikin yanayi na shagaltuwa da yake-yaken neman suna, wanda ya janyo rashin tsaro da kunci ga al’umma. Don haka ne kawo chanji ya zama wajibi domin tseratar da al’umma tare da Addinin su.

A misalin karshen karni na 18, wani masani kuma Malamin addinin Musulunci mai suna Shehu Usman Danfodio ya bayyana a Masarautar Gobir yana wa’azin addinin Musulunci da kuma kiran kawo chanji ga rayuwar jama’a.

SHEHU USMAN DANFODIO

Usman Danfodio wanda aka fi sani da Shehu Usman Danfodio an haife shi ne a ranar 15 ga December, 1754, a Maratta dake cikin Masarautar Gobir, wadda yanzu take yankin arewa maso yammacin Nigeria. Mahaifin Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kasance malamin Addinin Musulunci daga kabilar Fulani Torankawa.

Shehu Usman Danfodio ya fara karatun Qur’ani mai girma yana karamin yaro a hannun mahaifin sa a garin su na Degel. Daga baya kuma, ya fara yawon neman ilmin Addinin Musulunci daga gari zuwa gari. A wannan yawon neman ilmin ne ya ya zauna yayi karatu a karkashin wani shararren malamin addinin Musulunci dake Agadez, mai suna Sheikh Jibril Ibn Umar. Ya tabbata a tarihi cewa, Shehu Usman Danfodio ya samo akidar kawo chanji da zafin akida musamman wajen kyautata addinin Musulunci a gurin Sheikh Jibril Ibn Umar.

Bayan Shehu Usman Danfodio ya samu ilmin addinin Musulunci daidai gwargwado, sai kuma ya fara yin wa’azi lokacin yana dan shekaru 20 a shekarar 1774.

Tauraruwar Shehu Usman Danfodio ta fara haskakawa wadda ta janyo yaduwar sunan sa da ilmin sa zuwa sauran sassan kasar Hausa, har ta kai mutane musamman Fulani sun fara zuwa gurin sa daga gurare daban daban domin su koyi ilmin Addinin Musulunci a gurin sa.

Wannan shahara da kuma kira zuwa ga koyarwar Addinin Musulunci ta gaskiya ta janyo wa Shehu Usman Danfodio bakin jini a gurin manyan Masarautar Gobir, musamman Sarkin Gobir Yumfa wanda yake ganin cewar Shehu Usman yana kokarin yi masa juyin mulki ne kawai. Don haka ne Sarki Yumfa yayi ta kuntatawa Shehu Usman Danfodio da mabiyan sa, har ta kai yayi kokarin kashe Shehun, amma bai samu nasara ba. Daga bisani da Sarki Yumfa yaga cewar Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kasa tabuwa, sai ya umarce shi da yabar kasar Gobir tare da duk wani mabiyin sa.

Bayan la’akari da yadda Manzon ALLAH (SAW) ya yi hijra daga Makka zuwa Madina, sai Shehu Usman Danfodio tare da iyalan sa suka yi hijra daga garin su na Degel dake karkashin ikon Masarautar Gobir zuwa wani guri yamma da shi da ake kira Gudu, a ranar 21 ga February, 1804, kuma ya umarci duk wani mabiyin sa da ya yi hijra zuwa Gudu.

A Gudu, sai Shehu Usman Danfodio tare da mabiyan sa wanda mafi yawan su Fulani suka fara shirin yin yaki, domin sun yi la’akari da cewa Sarkin Gobir Yumfa yana kokarin kawo musu hari.

Farawar Jihadin Fulani

Ana cikin yanayi shiri ne, sai Sarki Yumfa ya kaiwa dalibin Shehu mai suna Abdussalam hari a garin su na Gimbana. Don haka sai Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kaddamar da Jihadi akan Masarautar Gobir, kuma ya umarci duk mabiyan sa da su dauki makami domin daukaka kalmar ALLAH.

YAKIN TABKIN KWATO

Bayan da Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kaddamar da Jihadi akan Gobir, sai ya fito tare da magoya bayan sa domin a gwabza yaki da rundunar mayakan Gobir karkashin jagorancin Sarki Yumfa. An ce rundunar mayakan Fulani masu Jihadi sun hadu da rundunar Gobirawa ne a ranar 21 ga June, 1804, a kusa da wani Tabki da ake kira Tabkin kwato.

An buga yaki tsakanin bangarori biyun, kuma daga karshe mayakan Fulani masu Jihadi karkashin jagorancin Shehu Usman Danfodio wanda basu wuce mutum 1500, sun ci nasara akan mayakan Sarkin Gobir wanda aka yi kiyasin sun kai mutum 10,000.

Rundunar masu Jihadi karkashin jagorancin Shehu Usman Danfodio basu tsaya ba, sun ci gaba da cin garuruwan kasar Gobir har sai da suka kame Alkalawa, babban birnin Gobir, kuma suka samu nasarar kashe Sarkin Gobir Yumfa.

JIHADIN FULANI A SAURAN GURARE

Bayan nasarar da Shehu Usman Danfodio tare da mayakan sa suka samu akan Sarkin Gobir Yumfa, sai kuma labarin nasarar ya yasu zuwa sauran yankunan kasar Hausa da kuma sauran gurare. Don haka ne dalibai da sauran shugabannin Fulani masu son kawo chanji, suka dinga tahowa gurin Shehu Usman Danfodio suna karbar tuta domin su kaddamar da Jihadi a yankunan su.

Zuwa shekarar 1807, mayaka masu yin Jihadi sun murkushe manyan Masarautun kasar Hausa irin su Katsina, Kano, Daura, Zazzau (Zaria).

A kasa ga jerin manyan shugabannin Fulani da Shehu Usman Danfodio ya bawa tutar Jihadi domin kafa mulkin a bisa Shari’ar Musulunci :

  1. Malam Sulaimanu daga Kano
  2. Malam Umaru Dallaji daga Katsina
  3. Malam Musa daga Zazzau
  4. Malam Adama daga Adamawa
  5. Malam Buba Yero daga Gombe
  6. Malam Yakubu daga Bauchi
  7. Malam Gwani Mukhtar daga Misau
  8. Malam Isyaku daga Daura
  9. Malam Ibrahim Zaki daga Katagum
  10. Malam Sambo daga Hadejia
  11. Malam Usman Dantunku daga Kazaure
  12. Malam Dendo daga Nupe (Bida)
  13. Malam Alimi daga Ilorin

KARKAREWA

Jihadin Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kasance wani Juyin-Juya hali da ya kawar da mulkin Habe (Hausawa) a kasar Hausa, kuma ya kawo mulkin Fulani a karkashin Daular Fulani ta Sokoto.

Haka a dunkule, Jihadin Fulani a bisa jagorancin Shehu Usman Danfodio ya kasance wani Juyin-Juya hali wanda ya kawar da zalunci da barna kuma ya shimfida tsarin Shari’ar Musulunci wadda ta samarwa mutane yanci da kuma zaman lafiya.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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