HausaTarihin Duniya

YAKIN DUNIYA NA DAYA

Wasu daga cikin guraren Yakin Duniya na daya. Source : One of the World War I scenes. Source : A Public Domain kids.kiddle.co

A tarihi Yakin Duniya na daya wanda a turance ake kira da World War I ko First World War wani yaki ne wanda manyan kasashen duniya, musamman na nahiyar Turai (Europe) irin su Ingila (Britain), France, Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Daular Ottoman ta Turkiya (Ottoman Empire), da kuma Amurka suka fafata, a tsakanin shekarun 1914 zuwa 1919.

A bisa tarihi, ya tabbata cewa zuwa shekarar 1900 wato farkon karni na 21, kasashen yammacin Turai irin su Ingila, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, da kuma Italy sun kai ga cikakken ci gaban tattalin arziki (economic development) da kuma ikon mulki (political dominance). Wannan ci gaban kuma, shine ya basu damar mallakar duniya, inda suka mallake gaba dayan nahiyar Amurka, kusan gaba dayan nahiyar Africa, da kuma yankuna masu yawa a nahiyar Asia.

Saboda haka, wannan bunkasa da kasashen Turai suka yi, sai ya bude kofar yin gasa da juna domin zarce sa’a a tsakanin su. Ko wacce kasa sai ta dau irin salon siyasar mulki da kuma tattalin arziki (political and economic policies) domin samun karfin iko a duniya.

Wannan yanayi a hankali sai kuma ya rikide ya zama rigima amma na banbancin ra’ayi (conflict of interests) a tsakanin wadannan manyan kasashe wanda ya janyo rabuwar su zuwa kungiyar kawance biyu. Kungiya ta farko ana kiran ta da ‘Triple Entente Alliance’ ta kunshi kasashe irin su Ingila, France, da kuma Russia. Ita kuma kungiya ta biyu ana kiran ta da ‘Triple Alliance’ kuma ta kunshi kasashen Germany, Austria-Hungary, da kuma Italy wadda daga baya ta fita daga kawancen.

Wannan rabuwa da manyan kasashen Turai suka yi zuwa gida biyu, shine ya fara alamta cewa lallai yaki tsakanin manyan kasashen Turai yana shirin afkuwa.

To amma ba tsammani, sai wani abu ya faru a birnin Sarajevo na kasar Serbia wanda shine ya kasance dalilin barkewar Yakin Duniya na biyu. Wannan abu kuwa shine kisan da wani dan fafutukar neman yanci da ake kira Gavrilo Princip ya yiwa dan Sarkin Austria mai suna Archduke Franz Ferdinand a ranar 28 ga June, 1914.

Wannan kisa da aka yi wa Yarima mai jiran gado na kasar Austria-Hungary, shine yasa kasar Austria-Hungary ta kaddamar da yaki akan kasar Serbia , kuma hakan ya bude farawar Yakin Duniya na daya.

Yadda Yakin Duniya na daya ya samo asali

Yayin da karni na 20 ya shigo, kasashen Yammacin duniya tuni sun riga sun kai ga ci gaban mulki da tattalin arziki wanda ya basu damar mallakar duniya a tafin hannuwan su. Don haka ne kuma gasa da kuma kokarin tserewa sa’a ya janyo banbancin ra’ayi a tsakanin kasashen.

Gasa da kokarin tserewa sa’a a bangaren karfin soja shima yana cikin abin da manyan kasashen Turai suka maida hankali akai. A misali cikin shekarar 1906, kasar Ingila ta kera tare da kaddamar da wani katafaren jirgin ruwan yaki wanda ta sakawa suna HMS Dreadnaught. Shi wannan jirgin ruwan yakin ya kasance yana da manyan bakin bindigu 24, kananan bakin bindigu guda 10, da kuma kofofin harba bama-bamai ta karkashin kasa (torpedo).

Katafaren jirgin ruwan Ingila na Dreadnaught. Source : wikipedia.org

Saboda haka tsoron rinjaye ya janyo kasashen na Yammacin Turai suka rabu zuwa rukunin kawance guda biyu. Rukuni na farko da ake kira ‘Triple Entente’ ya kunshi manyan kasashen Ingila, France, Russia, da kawayen su. Rukuni na biyu kuma ya kunshi Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, da kawayen su.

Tsarin kawance tsakanin manyan kasashen Turai, gasa ta fannin tattalin arziki, da kuma rikice-rikicen neman yanci musamman a yankin Balkan, ya alamta da kuma bada tabbacin cewa yaki tsakanin manyan kasashen Turai yana gab da afkuwa.

Barkewar Yakin Duniya na daya

Yayin da duk duk alamomi suka bayyana na barkewar Yakin Duniya na daya, dalili na karshe ya faru ne a ranar Lahadi, 28 ga June, 1914, a birnin Sarajevo na kasar Serbia. Wannan abu da ya faru kuwa shine kisan da wani mai fafutukar neman yanci da ake kira Princip Gavrilo ya yiwa Yarima mai jiran gado na kasar Austria-Hungary wato Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Bayan kamar wata daya, kasar Austria-Hungary ta zargi kasar Serbia da hannu akan kashe mata Yarima mai mai jiran gado. Don haka a ranar 28 ga July, 1914, kasar Austria-Hungary ta kaddamar da yaki akan kasar Serbia ta hanyar jefa bama-bamai a birnin Belgrade.

Wannan hukunci da kasar Austria-Hungary ta dauka akan Serbia shine ya janyo shigowar sauran manyan kasashen Turai cikin rigimar, wadda ta girmama zuwa Yakin Duniya na daya. Da farko, Germany ta shiga rigimar ta hanyar goyawa kasar Austria-Hungary baya da kuma kaddamar da yaki akan Russia ranar 1 ga August, da kuma kaddamar da wani yakin ranar 2 ga August akan kasar France, wadanda su kuma suna kare kasar Serbia ne.

Kasar Ingila bata yi niyyar shiga Yakin Duniya na daya ba, to amma bayan da kasar Germany ta kaiwa kasar yan baruwan mu (neutral) ta Belgium hari, sai Ingila ta canza tunani, yayin da ta shiga Yakin a ranar 3 ga August tare da kaddamar da yaki akan kasar Germany.

Kasar Amurka ta shiga Yakin Duniya na daya a ranar 7 ga December, 1917, bayan da jiragen yakin ruwan Germany suka nitsar da jiragen ruwan yan kasuwar Amurka.

Wannan shigowa cikin rigimar kasashe biyu tare da daukar bangare da sauran manyan kasashen Turai suka yi, shine ya tabbatar da afkuwar Yakin Duniya na biyu. Sannan kuma yakin ya koma tsakanin kawayen kasashe da masu goya musu baya. A hannu na farko kasashen Ingila, France, da kuma Russia sun hada kai guri guda a Yankin, Yayin da su ma kasashen Germany, Austria-Hungary, da kuma Daular Ottoman ta Turkiya suka hada kai guri guda.

Bayan kimanin shekaru 4 daga shekarar 1914 zuwa 1919, manyan kasashen duniya da kawayen su, sun fafafata tsakanin su ta hanyar yin amfani da manyan makamai masu hadari, wanda duniya bata taba gani ba kafin wannan zamani.

A a watan November na shekarar 1918, Yakin Duniya na daya yazo karshe ta hanyar sa hannu akan yarjejeniyar tsagaita wuta da manyan kasashen suka yi.

KARKAREWA

Yakin Duniya na daya ya kasance mafi munin yake-yake da aka yi kafin 1914.

Anyi kiyasin cewa akalla kimanin mutum miliyan 15 sun rasa rayukan su. Haka kuma, kimanin gine-gine 500,000 sun lalace, tare da sauran abubuwan more rayuwa irin su tituna, gadoji, wayoyin sadarwa (telephone), da sauran su.

A bangaren kashe kudi kuma, kasashen da suka shiga Yakin Duniya na biyun, akalla sun kashe kudi kimanin dala biliyan 350

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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