The Industrial Revolution was a period from about 1750 to around 1850 in the European history in which the production of goods was transformed from the use of hand to the use of machines, which eventually paved the way for the factory system.
The Industrial Revolution started in Britain and subsequently to the other parts of Europe. The Industrial Revolution as an economic as well as the social Revolution have made it possible for the growth of large towns into an industrial cities and shaped not only the British social structure but the other European into a capitalist one.
The Industrial Revolution was possible due to the new inventions of machines that transformed the manufacturing into mechanized one. For example, early at the start of the Revolution in England, John Kay have invented flying shuttle in 1733 which enabled weavers to weave cloth very speedy and also in abundance.
The Start of the Industrial Revolution
By 1700, Britain as pioneer of the Industrial Revolution was already an imperialist power that established a commercial activities in the America, India, and some other parts of the world. Therefore, both at home and abroad there was a high demands of British manufactured goods. The needs for an efficient as well as simple ways of manufacturing was needed. And in turn, investors sponsored and encouraged inventors to make machines that could do the desired work very fast and in abundance.
The Revolution started with the textiles manufacturing as in 1733, John Kay invented the flying shuttle for weavers in order to cheapean and speeding up their productions. Likewise, in order to keep pace with the flying shuttle, in 1764, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny machine which could produced ten times as much thread as a spinning wheel could previously do. In 1769, a Scottish engineer invented a steam engine primarily to power those machines that were invented.
Therefore, these few aforementioned inventions and others have transformed the English textiles industry in particular, and have initiated the transition from the human to the machines labor, which in turn led to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in general.
Spread of the Industrialization in Europe
From Britain, the wave of Industrial Revolution have gradually spread to other European countries. In Europe, Belgium was the first country to be industrialized. In the countries, governments supported and provided conducive atmosphere in this race of industrialization. Also, British industrial experts usually went to other European countries for industrial investments.
However, the Industrialization development in Europe has happened rapidly. In France for example, the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic era have hindered the speed of industrialization.
Impact of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution have so many impacts on the economical as well as social aspects of not only Britain but the Europe as a whole.
Rapid Growth of Towns
As a result of this Revolution, many major towns specifically in England have grew into an industrial cities. The population of these towns have doubled as a result of many people from area were migrating for work in the growing industries. Cities like Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, and others have grew through this development of industrialization.
Development of new Transportation system
As a result of large quantities of raw materials were requiring a better and effective ways of transporting them to factories.
Roads system was transformed in which roads were improved by putting layers of small stones and labelled them on a surface of earth which provides a good and smooth surface for vehicles. By, 1840, nearly all of the roads in England were improved.
Rail system for the first time was improved during the Industrial Revolution. Locomotive as an engine was invented to support rail cars to ran on the newly track ways. By 1830, there was a string of rail cars carrying raw materials and finished goods to some places. For example, the first was from Manchester to Liverpool.
The development of rail transportation have provided fast as well as cheap way of carrying passengers with their goods to different places.
New Ways of Communication
Ways of communication during the period of Industrialization in Europe have been improved for the purpose of providing easier way of commercial communications between distances. Because, factory owners and merchants needs to communicates on when raw materials would arrive as well as the shipments of goods to the other places.
In 1837, Samuel Morse invented the telegraph primarily in order to send electrical signal messages, but gradually it became inefficient.
In 1876, telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. This invention have the capacity to send human voice across wires and enabled the transmission of discussion between people.
The Industrial Revolution was possible due to the new inventions of machines that transformed the manufacturing processes from manual to mechanized one.
Likewise, Industrial Revolution as an economic revolution in Europe, was what actually put the European countries specifically Britain at the front in the world.