TARIHI CINIKIN BAYI NA ATALANTIKA

Wani jirgin ruwan daukan bayi a zamanin Cinikin Bayi na Tekun Atalantika, By William Jackson. Source : A Public Domain kids.kiddle.co

Cinikin Bayi na Atalantika (Atlantic Ocean) wanda a turance ake kira da Atlantic Slave Trade wani zamani ne a tarihin duniya daga misalin Karni na 15th zuwa Karni na 19th, wanda yan kasuwa masu sayen bayi daga kasahen Turai (European countries) suka dinga sayen mutane a Africa a matsayin bayi, suna kai su nahiyar Amurka (Americas) da ta Turai domin suyi musu bauta.

Kamar yadda masu karatun tarihi suka sani, zuwa farkon shekarun 1500 (1500s) a zamanin da a tarihance ake cewa “Age of European Exploration” wato shekaru da Turawa suka dukufa wajen gano hanyoyin tafiye-tafiye musamman na ruwa, kasashen Turai musamman Portugal da Spain sun sami ilimin gano yadda taswirar duniya take, da kuma iya gano hanyoyin jiragen ruwa da za su sadar da su ga kasashen gabas da na yamma, wato a turance “linking eastern and western hemisphere “. Sannan kuma sun yi kokarin gano yankuna masu yawo a duniya ciki har da nahiyar Amurka wadda kafin lokacin ba su santa ba. Don haka ne a wannan kokari ne, jiragen ruwan kasuwanci na Kasar Portugal a kokarin su na neman hanyar ruwa da zata sadar da su ga yankin India da na China domin kulla alakar kasuwanci, suka yi nasarar gano gabar tekun Atalantika dake yammacin Africa. Saboda haka, wannan ya bada damar kulla alakar kasuwanci tsakanin yan kasuwa na kasar Portugal da kuma na masarautun gabar teku, irin su Masarautar Benin, Asante, da kuma ta Dahomey.

Bayan wani dan lokaci kuma, a shekarar 1526 sai turawan kasar Portugal suka fara sayen bakaken fatar Africa a matsayin bayi daga hannun yan kasuwa masu sayar da bayi a Masarautar Benin wadda yanzu tana cikin kasar Nigeria ta yanzu, suka kuma zuba su jirgin ruwa zuwa nahiyar Amurka domin su je suyi musu noma a manyan gonakin su dake nahiyar Amurka, wasu yan kadan daga cikin bayin kuma suka kai su nahiyar Turai domin su zama bayi masu yin aikin gida wato a turance ” home servants”.

Don haka ne masana tarihi suka tabbatar da cewa, tun daga wannan shekara ta 1526 da Turawan Portugal suka sayi bayi a Africa, sai kuma sauran yan kasuwa daga kasashen Turawa kamar su Spain, Ingila (Britain), Faransa (France) da kuma Netherlands suka shiga cikin Cinikayyar bayin sosai.

Asalin fara Cinikin Bayi na Atalantika

Asalin fara Cinikin Bayi na Tekun Atalantika ya samo asali ne daga karni na 15th, lokacin da kasashen Turai irin su Portugal da Spain suka jagoranci nasarar gano yankin Amurka wanda kafin lokacin, babu wata kasar Turawa da ta san da yankin na Amurka. Saboda haka, wannan kuma ya ba su damar kafa manyan gonakin noman rake (sugar cane), Kofi (coffee), auduga (cotton) da sauran su. To kuma akwai bukatar samun wadan da za su yi juriyar noma wadannan gonaki.

A hannu daya kuma, zuwa farkon Karni na 16th, tuni jiragen ruwan yan kasuwar Portugal sun fara zuwa gabar tekun yammacin Africa suna kawo kayan sayarwa irin su madubi, bindigu, kayan sawa, da kuma giya. Sannan su kuma yan kasuwar Africa su sayar mu su da gwal (gold), manja (palm oil), koko (cocoa), da kuma bayi kadan.

Wannan fara alaka ta kasuwanci tsakanin yan kasuwa daga Turai da kuma na Africa shine ya bawa Turawa damar fara sayen mutanen Africa a matsayin bayin da za su yi musu bautar noma a wadannan manyan gonaki na su dake nahiyar Amurka. Yan kasuwar Kasar Portugal ne suka fara sayen bayi a shekarar 1526 daga hannun yan kasuwa masu sayar da bayi na Masarautar Benin, sannan kuma sauran yan kasuwa daga kasashen Turai irin su Spain, Ingila (Britain), Faransa (France), Netherlands, da kuma Denmark suka shigo cikin.

Yayin da wannan Cinikayyar bayi ta karbu a gurin sauran yan kasuwar kasashen Turai, sai cinikin ya zama mai riba ga bangare biyu na yan kasuwar. Saboda, kasashen Turai sun sami saukin samar da ma’aikata da za su yi musu aiki a wannan manyan gonaki na su da kuma ayyukan gida. Su kuma yan kasuwar Africa masu sayar da bayi na Africa sun sami kudi ta wannan kasuwanci.

Yanayin kamen Bayin

Ya tabbata cewa, Turawa a zamanin Cinikin Bayi na Atalantika basa iya shiga cikin kwaryar nahiyar Africa, sai dai su tsaya a bakin gabar Teku. Don haka, sun dogara ne da yan kasuwa masu kamen bayi dake nahiyar Africa wajen kamo bayin da kuma sayar mu su. Akwai hanyoyi sanannu guda 3 wajen kamo bayin kamar haka :

  1. Wasu bayin ana iya kamo su ne ta hanyar yake-yaken kabilanci wanda masarautun bakin Teku suka shahara wajen yi. A misali, akan iya shirya yaki kawai don kama bayi.
  2. Wasu kuma bayin ana samun su ne ta hanyar kai farmaki (raiding) ga wasu mutane. Domin yawancin masu kamen bayin sukan kai hari akan wani gari ko wasu gungun mutane tafiya domin su kama su a matsayin bayi.
  3. Wasu kuma bayin ana samun su ne, yayin da suka aikata wani babban laifi a cikin al’ummar su, to cikin hukuncin da ake yi musu ne, ake sayar da su a matsayin bayi.

Don haka, idan masu kamen bayi sun sami bayin ta daya daga cikin wadannan hanyoyi da muka ambata, ko kuma wasu hanyoyi daban. Sukan tattara su, sai kuma su daure su da sarka ko kuma igiya mai kwari daya a gaban daya. Daga nan kuma sai ya taho da su zuwa bakin teku inda Turawa suke hada hadar sayen bayi.

A tsarin kasuwancin, akwai tashoshin saye da sayarwar bayi a gabar tekun Africa inda yan kasuwar Africa suke kawo bayin, su kuma yan kasuwa masu sayen bayi daga Turai suke zuwa su saya ko kuma ayi musanye (trade by barter) da kayan sayarwar su irin su bindigu, kayan sawa, madubi, da kuma giya.

Da zarar bayin sun isa tasoshin saye da sayarwar, sai Turawan masu saye su zo su duba domin su saya. Yawancin Turawan sukan zo da likita domin ya duba lafiyar bayin, kafin a saye su. Haka kuma, an fi sayen bayi maza kuma wanda shekarun su suka fara daga 10 zuwa 35. Yayin da su kuma mata ba’a fiya sayen wanda suka haura shekara 30 ba. Idan kuma ciniki ya fada, sai dan kasuwar da ya saya yazo da wani karfe wanda ya yi jajazur a wuta ya dana wa bawan a matsayin tambarin da zai gane nasa ne ko da ya gudu.

Bayan an gama sayen bayin ne kuma, sai a zuba su a jiragen ruwa, inda mafi yawa ake kai su nahiyar Amurka domin su yi noma. Wasu kuma kadan daga cikin bayin, ake kai su nahiyar Turai a matsayin bayi masu aikatau a gidaje.

Yanayin rayuwar Bayi

Kamar yadda ya tabbata a tarihi, yanayin kamen bayi a zamanin Cinikin Bayi na Atalantika ya kasance mai muni da tsanani kwarai da gaske fiye da sauran cinikayyar bayi da aka yi a sauran sassan duniya. Domin kuwa, mafiya yawa daga cikin masana tarihi sun tabbatar da cewa rayuwar bayi a wannan zamani musamman bayin da su ke noma a gonaki ta kasance ta wahala da kuma keta hakkin dan adam. Saboda ya tabbata cewa mafi yawancin bayin ana mu’amalantar su ne kamar dabbobi. Kuma haka ta faru ne sakamakon rashin imanin Turawa saboda suna ganin shi bawa ba shi da wani yanci tun da sayen sa aka yi.

A nahiyar Amurka kuwa da ake kai bayin daga Africa, ana tilastawa bayin su yi noma a manyan gonaki na tsawon lokutai da suka wuce kima. Duk bawan da kuma yaki yi ko kuma bai yi yadda ya kamata ba, to ana hukunta shi kamar dabba. Misalin hukuncin shine, akan yi musu bulala da ta wuce kima har sai jikin su ya fashe, ko a yanki naman jikin su, ko kuma a hana su abinci a wannan rana.

Don haka ne, a tarihi aka samu lokutai daban-daban da bayin suka yi bore saboda zaluncin da ake yi musu. A misali, a yankin nahiyar Amurka cikin yankuna irin su Brazil, yankin Karebiyan (Caribbeans) da kuma tarayyar Amerika (USA) an sami bore kamar sau 200, wanda ya samarwa da bayin sauki.

Ribar ta Turawa ce

Kasashen Turai a matsayin masu sayen bayi daga Africa domin su yi musu aiki, sannan a wani hannun kuma masu sayar da kayan masarufin su a Africa, sun kasance da cin moriyar kaso 90% na wannan zamani na cinikayyar bayi ta Tekun Atalantika.

Da farko, nahiyar Africa ta kasance kasuwa ga kayan masarufin da Turawa suka samar a masana’antun su. Domin kuwa Turawa sukan kawo kayen sayarwar su kamar su bindiga, madubi, kayen ado na mata, da kuma giya zuwa Africa. Yayin da su kuma yan kasuwar Africa sukan kawo wa Turawa gwal (gold), hauren giwa (ivory), kwakwar manja (palm oil), ko kuma bayi domin ayi musanya wato a turance ‘trade by barter’. Saboda haka, zamu ga cewa Africa ta zama kasuwa da Turawa suke sayar da kayan su, a wani bangaren kuma inda suke samun kayen sarrafawa (raw materials) domin masana’antun su dake Turai.

Na biyu, kuma mafi muhimmanci, Turawa sun samar da hanya mafi sauki ta yin aikatau a mayan gonakin su dake Amurka. Wannan hanya kuwa ita ce ta saye da amfani da bakaken fatar Africa a matsayin bayi da su dinga nome mu su wadannan gonaki.

Asarar ta Africa ce

Masana tarihi da yawa sun bayyana cinikin bayi na Tekun Atalantika a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan dalilan da suka kawo ci baya a nahiyar Africa, musamman ga yankunan da suke baki ko kusa da gabar Tekun Atalantika. Domin kuwa, kaso 5% zuwa 10% na wannan cinikayyar bayi Africa ta amfana da shi kawai. Shima kuma wannan amfanuwa ta takaita ne ga manyan sarakunan Masarautu kamar su Benin, Dahomey, Asante, garuruwan Niger-Delta, da sauran su, da kuma manyan yan kasuwa a wannan yankuna.

Da farko kamar yadda masanin tarihin nan dan Africa da ake kira da Walter Rodney ya fada, ya nuna cewa cinikayyar bayi ta Tekun Atalantika ta janyo faruwar yake-yaken kabikanci da kuma kai hare-hare domin samun bayi. Saboda lokacin da sarakunan Masarautun gabar Tekun Africa suka fahimci cewa wannan Ciniki zai kawo musu riba, sai suka himmatu wajen yaka da kai hari ga junan su domin samun bayin da za su sayar wa da Turawa. Dalilin wannan kuma, rashin tsoro ya bayyana wanda ya dakile ci gaban da Africa ya kamata ta samu.

Na biyu kuma, cinikayyar bayi ta Tekun Atalantika ya janyo raguwar mutane masu dimbin yawa, kuma lafiyayyu wanda kowace kasa take bukata don ci gaba. Domin kuwa, masana tarihi sun kididdige yawan bayin da aka fitar daga nahiyar Africa da cewa za su kai kimanin miliyan 10 zuwa12. Bayanin ya tabbatar da cewa, kaso 55% na bayin sun fito daga yammacin Africa (west Africa), kaso 39.4% sun fito daga tsakiyar Africa (central Africa), sannan sai kaso 4.7% daga kudancin Africa (southern Africa). Haka kuma bayanan tarihi sun tabbatar da cewa kimanin bayi miliyan 2 ne suka rasa ran su a sakamakon cututtuka da wahalhalu.

Na uku, cinikayyar bayi ta Tekun Atalantika ta janyo wa Africa kaskanci, da raini a idon Turawa wanda ya kara janyo wariyar launin fata (racism). Domin kuwa, mafiya yawan Turawa, suna bada hujjar wannan Cinikin Bayi a matsayin fifikon da suke da shi akan mutanen nahiyar Africa.

Rushewar Cinikin Bayi na Atalantika

An shafe kimanin shekaru dari hudu ana yin wannan cinikin bayi na Tekun Atalantika, wato daga Karni na 15th zuwa Karni na 19th kafin yazo karshe.

A misalin karshen karni na 18th ne Turawa suka fara dawowa daga rakiyar wannan Ciniki ta hanyar fara saka dokoki wadanda suka haramta Cinikin bayin. Babbar doka wadda Turawa suka yi, ita ce wadda Majalisar Dokokin kasar Ingila tayi a shekarar 1807, wadda ta haramta cinikin bayi na Tekun Atalantika. Daga nan kuma sauran kasashen Turawa suka bi bayan ta.

To amma wasu daga cikin masana tarihi sun samar da bayanai (theories) akan hakikanin dalilin da yasa kasashen Turawa da suka amfana daga Cinikin, amma kuma daga baya suka dawo daga rakiyar sa.

Masanin tarihin nan dan Africa wato Walter Rodney ya bayyana cewa babban dalilin da yasa kasashen Turawa musamman Ingila suka dawo daga rakiyar wannan Ciniki, shine samun cigaban masana’antu “Industrial Revolution” da aka samu a nahiyar Turai daga wajejen shekarar 1750. Wannan cigaba da ake kira a turance da Industrial Revolution ya kawo samuwar injina (machines) wanda suke iya yin aikin da mutum yake a gona ko a masana’anta. Don haka bukatar aikin mutum ta ragu, sakamakon wadannan injina da ake samarwa suna iya yin aikin a saukake kuma cikin sauki. Wannan ta saka kasashen Turai suka ga ya dace su tsayar da cinikin bayi na Tekun Atalantika.

Wasu masana tarihin kuma sun ce wannan cinikin bayi na Tekun Atalantika ya zo karshe ne, sakamakon matsin lamba akan Kasashen Turai, wanda wasu yan rajin kawo karshen wannan Ciniki da ake kira da ‘abolitionist’ suka dinga fafutukar rushe Cinikin. A misali, a kasar Ingila wani wakilin majalisar dokokin Ingila da ake kira William Wilberforce ya jagoranci wata fafutuka wadda ta tilastawa Majalisar Dokokin Ingila yin dokar da ta haramta cinikayyar bayi ta Tekun Atalantika a shekarar 1807.

To amma duk da kokarin da manyan kasashen Turai kamar Ingila da Faransa suka yi na dakile Cinikin, amma wasu kasashen sun ci gaba da safarar bayin. A misali, kasar Amurka ta kawo karshen Cinikin ne a shekarar 1863.

KARKAREWA

Cinikin bayi na Tekun Atalantika kamar yadda muka karanta, wani Ciniki ne da Turawa suka dinga saye da kamen bakaken fatar Africa, suna kai su nahiyar Amurka da nahiyar Turai domin suyi musu bauta.

Saboda haka, cinikin bayi na Tekun Atalantika ya taimakawa tattalin arzikin Turawa sosai, a hannu daya kuma ya rusa ci gaban Africa ta hanyoyin da dama.

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