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JUYIN-JUYA HALIN KASAR FARANSA

Kutsawa cikin Gidan Yari na Bastille a ranar 4 July, 1789. Painting Jean-Pierre Houël. Source : A Public Domain kids.kiddle.com

Tarihin Juyin-Juya Halin kasar Faransa da a turance ake kira da ‘French Revolution’ wanda ya fara a shekarar 1789 zuwa 1799, wani chanji ne da mutane a Faransa (France) suka samar a tsarin shugabancin su da kuma na zamantakewar su, wanda ya haifar da rushe tsarin mulkin sarauta da kuma kafa gwamnatin yan kasa wato a turance ‘republican system’.

Tarihi ya tabbata cewa kafin Juyin-Juya Halin Kasar Faransa, tsarin zamantakewar mutane a Faransa ya kasance a bisa rukuni guda uku. Rukuni na farko ya kunshi mutane da suka fito daga jinin malaman addini wato ‘clergy’, rukuni na biyu ya kunshi yan sarauta, sannan sai rukuni na uku wanda ya kunshi sauran talakawa wanda sune kaso 90% na yawan mutanen kasar Faransa a wannan zamani. To amma ya kasance rukuni na farko dana biyu suna da alfarma da fifiko akan mutane da suke a rukuni na uku. Saboda haka wannan ya janyo matsalar rashin jituwa a tsakanin rukunai biyu na sama da kuma rukuni na uku wanda ya kunshi sauran talakawa.

Haka kuma a tsarin wakilci a gwamnati, rukunai na farko da na biyu sun mamaye iko da karfin fada a ji a gwamnati. Wannan shima ya janyo matsalar zamantakewa.

Sannan kuma a shekarun 1788/1789, a samu matsalar tattalin arziki a Faransa sakamakon rashin iya gudanarwa da kuma matsalar amfanin gona. Don haka Sarki Louis ya kara yawan haraji akan talakawa domin gwamnati ta samu kudin shiga. Wannan kuma sai ya harzuka talakawa.

Ranar 14 ga July, 1789 ne wannan Juyin-Juya Hali ya fara, yayin da daruruwan talakawa masu son kawo chanji suka afka cikin Gidan Yari na Bastille (Bastille Prison) suka kashe masu tsaron Gidan, kuma suka tseratar da fursunonin ciki.

Dalilan Juyin-Juya Halin


Masana tarihi da yawa sun yi bayani akan dalilan da suka janyo wannan Juyin-Juya Hali, to amma ga manya guda uku daga ciki :

  1. Dalilin Zamatakewa :

Yanayin zamatakewa a kasar Faransa a wannan zamani ya taimaka kwarai wajen faruwar wannan lamarin. Domin akwai rukunin mutane guda 3 a Faransa. Rukuni na Farko ya kunshi jinin malaman Addini (clergies), Rukuni na biyu ya kunshi mutane yan jinin sarauta, sai kuma Rukuni na uku wanda ya kunshi talakawan kasar Faransa da yawan mutane kaso 90% na al’ummar kasar. To amma a tsarin, Rukuni na farko da na biyu sun kasance sun mallaki mafi yawan kasar noma a Faransa, sannan kuma basa biyan haraji. Sauran talakawa kuma da suke a Rukuni na uku sune suke biyan haraji, sannan kuma basu da alfarma a kasa.

Don haka wannan yanayi yasa sauran talakawa da suke Rukuni na uku suka nemi kawo chanji a lamarin.

  1. Dalilin Tsarin Shugabanci :

A tsarin shugabancin kasar Faransa a wannan zamani, Rukuni na daya dana biyu sun kasance suna da wakilai mafi yawa a Majalisar Kasa wadda ake kira Estates-General Assembly. Haka kuma sun mamaye manyan mukamai a Gwamnati da kuma cikin rundunar sojan Kasar. Saboda haka shima wannan yanayi yana cikin dalilan da yasa talakawan kasar Faransa suka nemi chanji.

  1. Dalilin Tattalin Arziki :

Zuwa shekarar 1789, kasar Faransa ta kasance cikin yanayi na bashi da kuma matsin tattalin arziki wanda ya kawo wa harkar tafiyar da gwamnati cikas. Wannan kuwa ya faru ne sakamakon kasar Faransa ta shiga cikin yake-yake na ba gaira ba dalili. Sannan kuma ta kashe kudi masu yawa wajen tallafawa mutanen Amurka a kokarin su na neman yanci gurin Burtaniya (Great Britain). Saboda haka Sarkin Faransa Louis na sha hudu (Louis XIV) ya kara yawan haraji akan talakawa domin samun kudin shiga a gwamnati.

To kuma anyi rashin sa’a, a shekarar 1787 zuwa 1788 an samu fari wanda ya janyo karancin abinci. Saboda haka wannan tsanani na rashin abinci sai ya hadu da tsananin karbar haraji daga Masarautar Faransa. Don haka ne wannan dalili da sauran dalilai suka hadu suka angiza talakawan kasar Faransa wajen kaddamar da Juyin-Juya Hali a shekarar 1789.

Barkewar Juyin-Juya Halin

Bayan matsin rayuwa ya kai talakawan kasar Faransa bango, sai suka hadu a yankin Versailles dake birnin Paris ranar 20 ga June, 1789. Bayan sun hadu, sai suka yi alkawarin baza su bar wannan guri ba har sai sun rubuta kundin tsarin mulki wanda za’a yi amfani da shi a kasar. To amma da Sarki Louis XIV yaji labari, sai aiko wata bataliyar soja ta tarwatsa taron.

A ranar 14 ga July, 1789, sai wasu daruruwan fusatattun talakawa a birnin na Paris suka hadu suka afka cikin Gidan Yari na Bastille, inda suka kashe masu tsaron Gidan Yarin, kuma suka fitar da duk fursunonin dake ciki. Don haka wannan hari ne ya zama mabudin wannan Juyin-Juya Hali. Wannan shiga da talakawan birnin Paris suka yi na Gidan Yarin Bastille, ya budewa talakawa na fadin kasar Faransa kofar shiga wannan Juyin-Juya Hali.

A cikin shekarar 1799, yan fafututa suka samu damar kama Sarki Louis XIV da mayar sa Marie Antoinette, kuma suka sare kawunan su. To amma duk da haka Juyin-Juya Halin ya ci gaba har zuwa shekarar 1799, lokacin da wani Janar din sojan Kasar mai suna Napoleon Bonaparte ya karbe mulkin kasar Faransa, kuma ya kawo karshen wannan Juyin-Juya Hali wanda a turance ake kira da ‘French Revolution’.

KARKAREWA

Juyin-Juya Hali na kasar Faransa a matsayin gwagwarmayar ceton talakawa, ya taka rawar gani wajen kawo wa talakawa yanci ba a kasar Faransa kadai ba har da sauran kasashen Turai. Don haka ne ma, bayan Juyin-Juya Halin aka samu wasu Juyin-Juya Hali a sauran gurare a nahiyar Turai.

Haka kuma duk da cewa, Juyin-Juya Halin a kasar Faransa bai samarwa da talakawa gwamnatin dimokaradiyya ba, amma kuma ya bawa mutane damar sanin yanci bama a Faransar kadai ba har da sauran duniya.

Ahmad Abdullahi, BA History

My name is Ahmad Abdullahi, I was born on 10th March, 1994 in Garun-Danga Town, Gabasawa L.G., Kano State. I attended FCE Demonstration Primary School from 2002 to 2007, FCE Staff Secondary School from 2007 to 2013, and Northwest University, Kano from 2013 to 2017, where I obtained bachelor degree in History.

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