MASARAUTAR KANO KAFIN JIHADI

GABATARWA


Kofar shiga Gidan Sarautar Kano

Masarautar Kano Kafin Jihadi ya kasance zamani mai muhimmanci a a tarihin Masarautar Kano wadda ta kasance babbar Masarauta mai tarihi wadda take a Jihar Kano, a yankin arewacin Nigeria. Ita Masarautar Kano ta fara ne a cikin shekarar 999 Miladiyya, bayan da wani wanda ake kira Bagauda dan Bawo ya mamaye mazauna Kano da ya tarar a yankin na Kano. Tarihi ya tabbatar da cewa, shi Bagauda yana daya daga cikin yaya 7 na Sarkin Daura Bawo wadan da ya tura wasu yankuna domin su kafa mulki na Sarauta. Sauran guraren kuwa sun hada da Katsina, Zazzau (Zaria), Biram, Gobir, Daura, Rano.

Tarihi ya nuna cewa kafin zuwan Bagauda Kano da kafa Masarautar Kano, tuni akwai mutane da suke zaune a Kano, wadanda aka ce maharba ne da suka fito yawon harbi daga yankin Gabas musamman Habasha (Ethiopia), har ALLAH YA kawo su Kano, kuma ance da suka ga yanayin Kano guri ne da yake da arzikin sinadarin tama (karfe) sai suka kafa mazaunan su, suka kuma fara harkar kira. Wadannan gurare da suka kafa mazaunan nasu, sune kamar Dutsen Dala, Gwauron Dutse, Dutsen Magwan, da kuma Dutsen Fanisau. An ce kuma su wadannan kabilun Hausawa ne, kuma sun hadu akan bauta iri daya. Wannan bauta kuwa ita ce ta bautar Tsafin Dodan Tsumburbura wanda yake a kan Dutsen Dala. Shugaban su kuwa akan wannan bauta ta Tsumburbura shine Barbushe. Kamar yadda Kundin Tarihin Kano na farko wato “Kano Chronicle” ya tabbatar, shi Barbushe yakan tara duk wadannan mazauna na yankin Kano a duk sabuwar shekara domin ya sanar da su abin da zai faru a wannan shekarar.

To bayan shudewar wani zamani ne, sai kuma Bagauda yazo Kano kuma ya mamaye duk mazauna Kano na wannan lokacin, a karshin Mulkin sa, don haka tarihin Masarautar Kano Kafin Jihadi ya fara a cikin shekarar 999 Miladiyya.

Masana tarihin Kano sun tabbatar da cewa anyi sarkunan Kano guda 43 a tarihin Masarautar Kano Kafin Jihadi. Haka kuma sun raba Sarakunan Masarautar Kano Kafin Jihadi zuwa Gidajen Sarauta guda 3 da a turance ake kira ‘dynasties’ kamar haka :

  1. Gidan Sarauta na Bagauda 999 zuwa 1463
  2. Gidan Sarautar Rumfa 1463 zuwa 1623
  3. Gidan Kutumbi 1623 zuwa 1807

GIDAN SARAUTAR BAGAUDA 999 – 1463

Sarkin Kano Bagauda shine na farko a jerin Sarakunan Kano da kuma jerin Sarakunan Gidan Bagauda wanda ya samo asali daga sunan sa.

Sarkin Kano Bagauda (999 – 1065) dan Bawo jikan Bayajidda ya kafa mulkin Sarauta ne a shekarar 999 bayan mallake duk mazauna Kano zuwa karkashin mulkin sa. Amma kuma ya basu yancin ci gaba da bautar su ta Dodon Tsumburbura.

Bagauda yana da manyan fadawa da kuma dakarun sa kamar irin su Akasan, Kududdufi, Darman, Buram, Goriba, da sauran su. Don haka ne zamu ga cewa wasu daga cikin sarautun hakimai a Kano kamar su Dan Darman, Dan Buram, da Dan Goriba duk sun samo asali ne daga sunayen fadawan Sarkin Kano Bagauda.

Bayan Sarkin Kano Bagauda ya shafe shekaru 66 yana Sarauta, sai ya rasu, kuma zamanin sauran Sarakuna ya biyo baya.

A zamanin Sarkin Kano Gajimasu (1098 – 1138) ne aka fara ginin Ganuwar Kano. Ance ya fara ginin ne daga tsakanin inda Kofar Dan Agundi take zuwa Kofar Nai’sa na yanzu.

A zamanin Sarkin Kano Guguwa (1247 – 1290) ne yayi kokarin ya rushe bautar Tsafin Dodan Tsumburbura, amma sai bokayan sa suka umarce shi da cewa lokacin rushe Tsumburbura bai yi ba, idan kuma ya kuskura ya yi, to zai mutu.

A zamanin Sarkin Kano Tsamiya (1315 – 1352) ne ya himmatu wajen kau da wannan bauta ta Dodan Tsumburbura, domin kuwa ya kasance su wadannan mutane masu bautar basa bin dokokin Sarakunan Kano idan har sun ci karo da imanin su. Don haka ne, Sarkin Kano Tsamiya ya hada wata yar runduna zuwa Dutsen Dala. An ce da zuwan su mutane masu kula da Dodan Tsumburbura suka nemi su hana su, amma Sarki ya umarci dakaru suka tarwatsa su. Sannan ya umarci babba daga cikin dakarin sa wato Jarmai Bajere da ya shiga cikin dakin bautar kuma ya tabbatar ya rusa komai ya gani a ciki. Da Jarmai Bajere ya shiga dakin, sai ya zaro mashi ya caka shi akan Dodan Tsumburbura, kawai sai wani hayaki ya fita daga cikin dakin ya watsu a sararin samaniya. Saboda haka wannan lamarin ne ya kawo karshen bautar Dodon Tsumburbura.

Zuwan Musulunci Kano

Kamar yadda masana da suka yi rubutu akan tarihin Kano, sun tabbatar da cewa Addinin Musulunci yazo Kano ne a Zamanin Sarkin Kano Yaji dan Tsamiya (1349 – 1385). Mutanen da suka kawo Addinin kuwa sune malamai masu yawon wa’azi na Wangarawa daga Kasar Mali karkashin jagorancin shugaban su Sheikh Abdurrahman Al-Zaiti.

Ance wadannan Malamai sun yi wa Sarkin Kano bayanin yadda Addinin Musulunci yake, kuma aka yi sa’a ALLAH YA bashi basira ya karbi Addinin. Sannan kuma ya mayar da Addinin na Musulunci a matsayin addinin da kowa a Kano zai bi.

An ce bayan Sarkin Kano Yaji, an sami wani Sarki wanda ya so ya mayar da Kano zuwa duhun kafirci. Wannan Sarkin kuwa shine Sarkin Kano Kanajeji (1401 – 1421), to amma dai ALLAH bai bashi sa’a ba, domin kuwa ance bai samu hadin kan sauran mutanen Kano ba, wadan Addinin ya riga yayi karfi a jikin su.

Bayan Sarkin Kano Kanajeji, wasu sauran Sarakunan na wannan Gidan Sarauta na Bagauda sun mulki Kano kamar yadda muka kawo a rubutun da mukayi a baya inda mukawo jerin Sarakunan Kano.

GIDAN SARAUTAR RUMFA (1463 – 1623)

Kamar yadda muka ambaci jerin Gidajen Sarauta da suka samar da Sarakunan Kano, Gidan Rumfa shine na biyu, kuma sarakuna 9 ne suka yi mulki a Gidan Sarautar na Rumfa.

Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa (1499 – 1509) shine na farko a wannan Gidan Sarautar wanda ya fara zama sarki.

Bayanai akan tarihin Kano da suke cikin Kundin Kano Chronicle da kuma sauran bayanai da aka yi sauran littattafan tarihin Kano, sun tabbatar da cewa Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa ne mafi kasaita, shahara, da kuma tasiri a jerin Sarakunan Kano kafin Jihadi. Domin shi Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa mutum ne kwararre a wajen tafiyar da mulkin jama’a, don haka ne ma lokacin da ya zama Sarkin Kano, sai ya fito da wasu tsare-tsare da kuma al’adu wanda yake yin su kamar haka :

  • Na farko sai ya gina Gidan Sarautar Kano wanda har yanzu shine Gidan Sarautar Kano
  • Sannan ya shigar da wasu tsare-tsaren Shari’ar Musulunci wajen gudanar da mulki
  • Sannan ya sake fadada birnin Kano daga inda Kofar Wambai take a yanzu zuwa inda Kofar Nassarawa take.
  • Sannan ya samar da kakin Gidan Sarautar Kano
  • Sannan ya fara saka takalmi mai gashin jimina
  • Sannan shine ya fara yin al’adar nan ta kwarakwarai
  • Sannan kuma shine wanda ya samar da bukukuwan Sallar Idi na hawan dawakai
  • Sannan shine ya fara yi amawali, wato Sarki yayi rawani daga bakin sa har zuwa kasan idon sa, domin idan zai yi magana kar a dinga ganin bakin sa.

Don haka zamu ga cewa mafi yawancin al’adun Sarakunan Kano, Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa ne ya fara yin su.

A bangaren kasuwanci kuwa, a zamanin Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa ne Kano ta zama daya daga cikin manyan cibiyoyin Kasuwancin Sahara wato ” Trans-Saharan Trade ” a turance kenan tsakanin Kasashen da suke arewa da Sahara zuwa na Kudu da Sahara wato Kasashen Sudan irin su Mali, Ghana, Kasar Hausa, da kuma Kasar Kanem-Bornu. Dalilin haka ne ma a zamanin na Sarkin Kano Muhammadu ya samar da Kasuwar Kurmi domin saye da sayarwa ta kayayyaki musamman kayan da Larabawan Arewacin Africa suke kawo daga gurare irin su Murzuk, Ghat, da kuma Turabulus (Tripoli).

Taswirar hanyoyin Kasuwancin Sahara a Karni na 16

Sannan kuma a zamanin Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa, Addinin Musulunci ya samu ci gaba sosai. Domin kuwa Sarkin Kano Rumfa ya kasance masoyin addinin da malamai, don haka ne ma manyan malaman Addinin Musulunci guda 2 suka zo Kano a zamanin sa. Na farko shine Malamin na dan Kasar Masar (Egypt) wato Imam Suyudi, har ma Sarkin ya bukaci ya yi masa addu’a domin ya kasance duk lokacin da ake maganar Kano, to ya zamana sunan sa ya fito, haka kuwa aka yi wadda wannan addu’ar ita ce ta saka har yan ake kiran Gidan Sarautar Kano da ” Gidan Rumfa “. Malami na 2 kuwa shine Sheikh Maghili wanda yazo daga kasar Mali. Shi kuma Sheikh Maghili ya rubuta masa littafi akan yadda Sarki ya kamata yayi mulki. Wasu masanan ma sun ce nasarori da kuma tasirin Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Rumfa sun samo tushe ne daga wadannan nasihohi da Sheikh Maghili ya rubuta masa.

A zamanin Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Kisoki (1509 – 1565) ne Larabawan daga Kasar Tunis (Tunisia) suka fara zuwa Kasuwanci Kano, har ma ance sune suka fara kawo littattafan Jami’us Sagir, da kuma Littafin Ashafa.

A zamanin Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Zaki (1582 – 1618) ne Kano ta sha fama da azabar hare-hare daga Kabilun Kororofa, har ance ma Kanawa mazauna wajen birnin Kano suka fara yin kaura zuwa Zaria da Katsina. Ya kuma tabbata a tarihi cewar a zamanin Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Zaki Kano ta samu nasara a wani yaki da suka buga.

A zamanin Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Nazaki (1618 – 1623) kuma, an kara fadada birnin Kano daga Kofar Dogo (Kofar Na’isa a yanzu) zuwa Kofar Gadon Kaya, har kuma aka dangana zuwa Kofar Kansakali.

Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Nazaki ya rasu a shekarar 1623, kuma shine ya zama na karshe a jerin Sarakunan Kano na Gidan Rumfa.

GIDAN KUTUMBI (1623 – 1807)

Sarkin Kano Alwali Kutumbi (1623 – 1648) dan Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Nazaki, shine na farko a jerin Sarakunan Kano daga Gidan Kutumbi.

Sarkin Kano Alwali Kutumbi ya kasance Sarki Kasaitacce wanda aka ce idan ya fito bikin hawan sallar idi, dakaru 50 ne akan dawakai dafa masa, kuma masu algaita da tambari guda 40 suna bushe-bushe da kade-kade, sannan kuma da dawakin zage 100 sun biye domin shirin ko ta kwana.

Haka kuma masana tarihin Kano sun bayyana Sarkin Kano Alwali Kutumbi aa matsayin mayaki wanda ya yi yaki da yawa. Ance yayi yaki da Gombe har ya ciwo garuruwan Fagam da Ganjuwa.

Sarkin Kano Alwali Kutumbi ya rasa ran sa ne a lokacin da ya kaiwa Katsina harin yaki a shekarar 1648. Ance shi da mayakan sa, sun je har bakin ganuwar birnin Katsina daidai inda Kofar Yandaka take a yanzu, kuma suka yi sansani da nufin in gari ya waye su kutsa cikin garin, amma sai mayakan Katsina suka yi shiri cikin dare suka hau mayakan Kano, wanda aka tabbatar da cewa Sarkin Kano Alwali Kutumbi ya rasa ran sa a wannan farmakin.

Zamanin Sarkin Kano Shekarau (1649 – 1651) ne aka yi sulhu tsakanin Kano da Katsina.

Bayan Sarkin Kano Shekarau kuma, an sami rigimar saurauta. Da farko dai bayan Sarki Shekarau ya rasu, sai kanin sa ya gaje shi wato Muhammadu Kukuna. To amma bayan shekara 1, sai dan Sarkin Kano Shekarau kuma da ake kira Soyaki sai yayi wa Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Kukuna juyin mulki a shekarar 1651. To amma dai zaune bata kare ba, domin ance shi Muhammadu Kukuna yayi kokarin samun hadin kan wasu daga cikin Kanawa ta bayen fage, don haka ne ma suka bashi sirrin yadda zai dawo sarauta. Don haka, sai Muhammadu Kukuna ya yi shiri da dakarun sa ya kutso cikin birni, ya kuma shiga cikin Gidan Sarautar Kano ya fitar da Sarkin Kano Soyaki daga Sarautar Kano, kuma hakan ta bashi damar dawo a matsayin Sarkin Kano.

A zamanin Sarkin Kano Dadi (1670 – 1703) ne, kabilun Kororofa suka sake kawo hari Kano. Har ma tarihi ya tabbatar da cewa Kororofawan sun kashe mayakan Kano da yawa, har ma ance shi kan sa Sarkin Kano Dadi sai da ya gudu tare da yan dakaru kadan.

A zamanin Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Sharefa (1703 – 1731) kuma, Sarkin Zamfara ya kawo wa Kano harin yaki, kuma ance shima ya samu nasara akan mayakan Kano.

Masarautar Kano ta ci gaba da shiga matsaloli na tattalin arziki da kuma rashin zaman lafiya musamman a zamanin Sarkin Kano Kumbari (1731 – 1743). Har ance mayakan Gobir sun takurawa Kano da hare-hare sosai, har ta kai Kano da Gobir din sun rasa mayakan su masu yawa ta dalilin wadannan yake-yaken. Haka kuma masana tarihin Kano sun tabbatar da cewa sakamakon wadannan yake-yaken da kuma takurar karbar haraji ta Sarkin Kano Kukuna, ta saka Larabawan Arewacin Africa sun daina zuwa Kano da kasuwanci, inda suka koma Katsina da sha’anin Kasuwancin su.

Tarihi ya tabbatar da cewa yaki tsakanin Kano da Gobir ya ci gaba. Har ma ance a zamanin Sarkin Kano Alhaji Kabe (1743 – 1753) an buga yake-yake daban-daban tsakanin Sarkin Kano Alhaji Kabe da Sarkin Gobir Barbari.

A zamanin Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Alwali (1781 – 1807) ne, jerin Sarakunan Kano kafin Jihadi yazo karshe, domin kuwa Jihadin Shehu Usman Danfodio ya fara.

A rubutun da muka yi a baya mun kawo yadda Sarkin Kano Muhammadu Alwali ya buga da Fulani masu Jihadi a Kano, har suka kawo karshen mulkin sa a shekarar 1807.


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