TARIHIN SAMUWAR DAN ADAM

Yadda dan adam ya canza zuwa cikakken mutum. Source : creativecommons.org

Tarihin Samuwar Dan Adam a mahangar masana kimiyya wanda a turance ake kira da Human Evolution ya nuna cewa farkon tarihin kasantuwar dan adam ya kasance ne cikin lokacin da babu rubutu wato prehistory a turance. Saboda haka ilimin mu na farkon dan adam ya dogara ne da ilimin gano da nazarin abubuwan da dan adam yayi amfani da shi a zamanin baya wato akiyoloji (archaeology), ilimin zamantakewa da al’adu (anthropology), da kuma ilimin halittu na biology.

A kokarin gano Tarihin Samuwar Dan Adam, daya daga cikin masana ilimin halittu na biology dan asalin kasar Scotland wato Charles Darwin ya bayar da wani bayani da a turance ya kira “Human Evolutionary Theory”, wanda a ciki ne ya bayyana cewar dan adam ya samo asali ne daga dangin birrai wato a turance ‘great apes’ da kuma yadda dan adam ya keto chanje chanjen siffa da tunani kafin ya kasance a yadda yake a yanzu.

A na su bangaren, masana archaeology suma sun yi bincike wanda ya bayar da haske wajen gano asalin dan adam. A misali, cikin Shekara ta 1959 wata wadda ake kira Mary Leaky tare da mijin ta sun gano wasu kasusuwan dan adam a wani yanki da ake kira Olduvai Gorge a cikin kasar Tanzania. A bayanin da ta bayar lokacin da ta gama nazarin kasusuwan, ta kiyasta wadannan kasusuwan da kasancewa kimanin Shekarau miliyan 2.

Farkon Tarihin Samuwar Dan Adam

Shaidu da ilimin archaeology dana biology suka samar ta hanyar binciken su, da kuma bayanin da masana tarihi suka bayar ya nuna irin yadda dan adam ya kasance a doran kasa kimanin shekaru miliyan 4 da suka wuce.

A sannu a sannu dan adam ya dinga samun fasahar yadda zai rayu wadda ta banban ta shi da sauran yan uwansa na dangin birrai, kamar fasahar farautar sauran dabbobi da tattara yayan itatuwa, tsayiwa da kafafu, samar da yin amfani da yare, da kuma uwa uba ta damar yin amfani da tunani.

A wasu binciken da aka gudanar a dangane da asali da kuma ci gaban da dan adam ya samu, ya nuna cewa yan adam suna rayuwa da kuma tafiya a cikin gungu wanda bai wuce mutane 10 zuwa 50 ba a cikin sa. Sannan suka samar da kayan farautar da aiki masu tsini. A bayan su kuma, matan su na biye da su suna tattara yayan itatuwa da rainon yara. Wannan dalili ne ma yasa masana tarihi suka yi ittifakin cewa farkon sana’ar dan adam ita ce farauta.

Africa Gidan Dan Adam na Farko

Wasu bayanai da aka gano a nahiyar Africa sun nuna cewa nahiyar Africa ita ce inda dan adam ya fara rayuwa a doran kasa.

A cikin shekarar 1959, wata mai ilimin archaeology da ake kira Mary Leaky ta gano wani kokon kan dan adam a wani yanki da ake kira Olduvai Gorge a kasar Tanzania. A bayanin da ta bayar, ta bayyana cewa wannan kokon kan ya kai kimanin shekaru miliyan 2.

Haka kuma, wani masanin archaeology mai suna Donald Johnson a wani bincike da ya gudanar a yankin Hadar na kasar Ethiopia, ya gano wasu kasusuwan irin dan adam. Kuma ya kiyasta cewa wannan kasusuwan sun kai kimanin shekaru miliyan 4. Har kuma ya kara da cewa sun yi kama da na sauran dabbobi na dangin birrai.

Hijirar Dan Adam ta Farko

Bincike da bayanai sun tabbatar da cewa tsakanin shekarau 750,000 zuwa 500,000 da suka wuce, wasu daga irin yan adam sun fara yin kaura daga nahiyar Africa zuwa wasu sassan nahiyoyin Asia da Turai (Europe). Domin binciken da aka gudanar a kasashen England, France, China, da kuma Indonesia an gano wasu kasusuwa da suke nuni da bayani akan hijirar.

To bayan yan adam sun fara fita daga Africa zuwa nahiyoyin Asia da Europe wanda sun fi ta Africa sanyi, to sai yanayin ya tilasta dan adam wajen gano da fara amfani da fasahar wuta domin dumama jikin sa, gasa nama, da kuma haskakawa idan dare yayi. A misali, wani binciken da aka gudanar a yankin Yunan na kasar China a 1985, an gano wasu konannun kasusuwan dan adam a kogon dutse. Kuma anyi kiyasin sun kai kimanin shekaru 600,000.

Tarihin Samuwar Dan Adam na Wannan Zamani

A kamar shekaru 195,000 da suka wuce, irin dan adam mai kama dana yanzu ya fara bayyana. Saboda a zuwa wannan shekaru ne dan adam ya fara samun sabbin dabaru da kuma kamanni na siffa irin ta da adam din yanzu. A misali, wani bincike da aka gudanar a yankin Neanderthal dake kasar Germany, ya gano wasu kasusuwan dan adam mai kama dana dan adam din yanzu. Kuma anyi musu kiyasin shekaru 190,000.

A bisa bincike da masana archaeology suka gudanar a kasashen Sudan, Ethiopia, da kuma South Africa, haka kuma masana al’adu suka yi nazari da bayar da bayani, an gano cewa irin dan adam na yanzu wanda ake kira ‘Homo Sapiens’ (the wise man) ya fara bayyana ne kimanin shekaru 90,000 da suka wuce.

Saboda daga tsakanin shekaru 90,000 zuwa shekaru 40,000 duk sauran yan adam suka kare a doran kasa ya zamana kawai irin dan adam ne na yanzu yake rayuwa a doran kasa. Domin a tsakanin wadannan shekaru ne dan adam ya fara zama guri daya har zuwa yau. Don haka ne ma masana suka ce chanzuwar dan adam a yanzu ta ta’allaka da tsarin zamantakewar sa amma bata tsarin chanzuwar halittar sa ba.

KARKAREWA

A bisa bayanin da muka ji na Tarihin Samuwar Dan Adam a mahangar masana kimiyya, zamu iya cewa dan adam ya samo asalin ne daga dangin birrai wanda ake kira ‘apes’.

Sannan kuma dan adam ya shiga yanayi daban daban na chanzuwar halitta kafin ya kawo zuwa wannan zamanin.

To amma, da yawa daga cikin masana musamman na addinai, sun rusa wannan bayani na masana kimiyya.

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